Mao X.,Beijing Normal University |
Yang S.,Beijing Normal University |
Liu Q.,Beijing Normal University |
Liu Q.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment |
And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2012
Transportation in China has joined the power generation as well as the steel and iron industries as one of the major CO 2 emission sectors. To determine the effective policy instrument(s) for reducing CO 2 emission, various policy instruments, which are likely to be implemented in the near future or have been implemented in China, are examined and compared. These instruments include carbon tax, energy tax, fuel tax, clean energy vehicle subsidy, and reduction on ticket price. The CIMS model system is employed as the simulation vehicle to predict the emission dynamics of CO 2 and local air pollutants under business-as-usual and policy scenarios for the transportation sector of China from 2008 to 2050. The 2020 CO 2 reduction target is set according to the national carbon intensity reduction pledge of China. The policy instruments proposed in the present research can all help mitigate the CO 2 emission intensity of the Chinese transportation industry to different extents, and then induce the co-benefits of local air pollutants reduction. Among these policy instruments, energy and fuel taxes, with the tax rates set, are the two most promising instruments for CO 2 emission intensity reduction to reach the 2020 carbon intensity reduction targets, whereas subsidies are the least promising options. CO 2 tax could be an effective policy tool, but with the suggested low tax rate during discussions in China, it is unlikely that the transportation sector would significantly contribute to achieving a desirable carbon intensity reduction. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
News Article | November 13, 2015
What will it take to limit global warming and the risk of catastrophic outcomes? Can the world unite behind a plan to limit greenhouse gases? That is the challenge before the world leaders who will gather in Paris in December to negotiate an agreement on climate. Many of those leaders have already revealed the voluntary commitments they are prepared to make during those negotiations, known as the 2015 Paris Climate Conference, the 21st annual Conference of Parties, or COP21. Now, a study led by MIT researchers, in consultation with researchers from Tsinghua University in China, attempts to quantify the potential impact of those commitments. Specifically, the researchers find that, all told, the known commitments could result in the significant expansion of solar and wind energy technologies, driving cost reductions and growth in the adoption and installation of these technologies. The report, “Technology improvement and emissions reductions as mutually reinforcing efforts: Observations from the global development of solar and wind energy,” is global in scope and was released in Washington this afternoon, during an update on the state of clean energy technologies in the United States by the U.S. Department of Energy at an event hosted by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. “Our research finds that commitments offered in advance of the Paris meetings provide an opportunity to support major growth and innovation in low-carbon energy. Technology-improvement trends also suggest the potential for strengthening global ambitions further. Ultimately, the goal of global efforts on climate change should be to achieve a self-sustaining, virtuous cycle of emissions reduction and low-carbon technology development,” said Jessika Trancik, the Atlantic Richfield Assistant Professor of Energy Studies at the MIT Institute for Data, Systems and Society (IDSS). “Given recent trends and future commitments, this appears increasingly realistic. Climate negotiations offer an opportunity to achieve this goal.” The white paper examines the evolution of solar and wind technology installation levels, policy, and cost performance in recent decades. In addition to these data, the researchers use public information gathered from nations’ voluntary commitments in advance of the negotiations for modeling, and conclude that solar and wind energy are poised for major growth if nations can promote a combination of global knowledge-sharing, global access to financing, and further development technologies such as energy storage that address intermittency of wind and solar. The researchers describe how the deployment of the low-carbon energy technologies necessary to achieving greenhouse gas emissions cuts helps bring about cost reductions that in turn will make further emissions cuts feasible. They find that climate negotiations may provide an opportunity to take advantage of this reinforcement effect and drive down the cost of mitigating carbon emissions by 2030 with concerted global efforts. Furthermore, these cost reductions can be accelerated if countries increase their commitments to deploying renewable and other clean energy technologies. Members of the core research team include MIT graduate students Patrick Brown, Magdalena Klemun, Goksin Kavlak, and Joel Jean. Other MIT contributing authors included postdoc James McNerney and graduate students Morgan Edwards, Marco Miotti, Joshua Mueller, and Zachary Needell. Trancik and others on the research team are affiliated with the MIT Energy Initiative (MITEI) and IDSS. The MIT team collaborated with a team led by Professor Ye Qi of Brookings Tsinghua Center for Public Policy, including Jiaqi Lu, Xiaofan Zhao, and Tong Wu. An executive summary and a full version of the report are available via the MITEI website.
News Article | November 11, 2016
San Francisco Business Times cites Siebel's effectiveness as a leader, high esteem in the business community, the health of the companies he's led, and his commitment to philanthropy REDWOOD CITY, CA--(Marketwired - November 11, 2016) - C3 IoT CEO Thomas M. Siebel received the 2016 Most Admired CEO Lifetime Achievement award from the San Francisco Business Times. At a gala awards and dinner ceremony held yesterday in San Francisco, Siebel accepted the award from long-time colleague, collaborator, and friend Patricia House, who described Siebel's impact on the technology industry and the community at large. "Tom's leadership at Oracle, Siebel Systems, and now C3 IoT is characterized by his unwavering commitment to building global companies known for excellence, quality, integrity, and performance," said Pat House, Executive Vice Chairman of C3 IoT, Chairman of the Mary Mae Foundation, and member of the boards of directors of the Hewlett Foundation and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. "Tom leads by example in all regards -- his work ethic, quality of work product, commitment to customer success, and high levels of professionalism. At C3 IoT, Tom is again prepared to establish and maintain a global market leadership position in next-generation enterprise software. He is building another great company that will change the face of computing and benefit customers, employees, and our global society." Siebel is founder and CEO of C3 IoT, which provides enterprise Internet of Things application software that employs advanced analytics and machine learning at scale to deliver actionable business insights. He was founder, chairman, and CEO of Siebel Systems, one of the world's leading business software companies, with more than 8,000 employees in 32 countries, 4,500 customers, and annual revenue in excess of $2 billion when it merged with Oracle Corporation in 2006. He serves on the College of Engineering boards at the University of Illinois and the University of California at Berkeley. He is a director of the Hoover Institution at Stanford University and is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Siebel is the founder and chairman of the Thomas and Stacey Siebel Foundation. Established in 1996, the Foundation funds projects to support energy solutions, educational and research programs, public health, and the homeless and underprivileged. In 2015 the Foundation launched the Siebel Energy Institute, a global consortium for innovative and collaborative energy research for the public domain. The Siebel Energy Institute fosters research collaboration among premier universities and spurs the greatest minds in engineering and computer science to address the most pressing energy challenges of our time. He is a graduate of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where he received a Bachelor of Arts in History, an M.B.A., and a Master of Science in Computer Science. "We selected Tom Siebel for this honor based on the longevity of his career, health of the companies he's led, including C3 IoT, his effectiveness as a leader, high esteem in the business community, and tremendous commitment to philanthropy in the fields of education, environment, healthcare, energy, fighting poverty, and beyond," said San Francisco Business Times publisher Mary Huss. "Tom embodies the attributes of exceptional leadership -- strong values, clear vision, innovation, integrity, and community contribution. We are proud to honor his talent and passion for building strong, vibrant organizations and inspiring employees to ever-higher performance." The San Francisco Business Times is a local business news media operation that includes a weekly newspaper, online news site, daily email news products and events. It is one of 40 regional newspapers published by American City Business Journals. The weekly San Francisco Business Times reaches more than 87,000 readers in the Bay Area. More information is at http://www.bizjournals.com/sanfrancisco. C3 IoT provides a full-stack IoT development platform (PaaS) that enables the rapid design, development, and deployment of even the largest-scale big data / IoT applications that leverage telemetry, elastic cloud computing, analytics, and machine learning to apply the power of predictive analytics to any business value chain. C3 IoT also provides a family of turn-key SaaS IoT applications including predictive maintenance, fraud detection, sensor network health, supply chain optimization, investment planning, and customer engagement. More information is at http://C3IoT.com.
Tankel S.,United International University Dhanmondi |
Tankel S.,Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Studies in Conflict and Terrorism | Year: 2014
India has been confronting jihadist violence for decades. Although expeditionary terrorism by Pakistani militants typically receives the most focus, indigenous actors, many benefitting from Pakistani support, are responsible for the majority of jihadist attacks in India. Yet the dynamics of Indian jihadism remain under-explored. This article examines the Indian Mujahideen (IM), which constitutes the primary indigenous jihadist threat. It argues the IM is best understood as a label for a network of modules, with a loose leadership, that is connected to smaller, self-organizing clusters of would-be militants as well as to foreign militant groups like the Pakistani Lashkar-e-Taiba. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Jaccard M.,Simon Fraser University |
Tu J.,Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2011
China is the world's largest carbon dioxide (CO 2) emitter and its energy system is dominated by coal. For China to dramatically reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the next few decades, it must either replace most of its uses of coal with energy supplies from renewables and nuclear power or install demonstration-size and then scaled-up carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. Currently, China is pushing ahead with increased investment in renewables and nuclear power and with demonstration CCS projects. This strategy is consistent with a country that seeks to be ready in case global pressures prompt it to launch an aggressive GHG reduction effort while also not going so fast that it reduces the likelihood of receiving substantial financial support from wealthier countries, as it feels it is entitled to as a developing country. At such a time, given the magnitude of the coal resource in China, and the country's lack of other energy resources, it is likely the Chinese will make a substantial effort to develop CCS before taking the much more difficult step of trying to phase-out almost all use of coal in the span of just a few decades in a country that is so dependent on this domestically abundant and economically affordable resource. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Brandt A.R.,Stanford University |
Sun Y.,Stanford University |
Bharadwaj S.,Stanford University |
Livingston D.,Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. |
And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015
Studies of the energy return on investment (EROI) for oil production generally rely on aggregated statistics for large regions or countries. In order to better understand the drivers of the energy productivity of oil production, we use a novel approach that applies a detailed field-level engineering model of oil and gas production to estimate energy requirements of drilling, producing, processing, and transporting crude oil. We examine 40 global oilfields, utilizing detailed data for each field from hundreds of technical and scientific data sources. Resulting net energy return (NER) ratios for studied oil fields range from ≈2 to ≈100 MJ crude oil produced per MJ of total fuels consumed. External energy return (EER) ratios, which compare energy produced to energy consumed from external sources, exceed 1000:1 for fields that are largely self-sufficient. The lowest energy returns are found to come from thermally-enhanced oil recovery technologies. Results are generally insensitive to reasonable ranges of assumptions explored in sensitivity analysis. Fields with very large associated gas production are sensitive to assumptions about surface fluids processing due to the shifts in energy consumed under different gas treatment configurations. This model does not currently include energy invested in building oilfield capital equipment (e.g., drilling rigs), nor does it include other indirect energy uses such as labor or services. © 2015 Brandt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Acton J.M.,Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Science and Global Security | Year: 2015
The United States, Russia and China are developing hypersonic boost-glide vehicles. A simple model of their trajectory is developed by assuming that the vehicle does not oscillate during the transition to equilibrium gliding. This model is used to analyze U.S. Department of Defense data on test flights for the Hypersonic Technology Vehicle-2. This glider’s lift-to-drag ratio—a key performance parameter—is estimated to be 2.6. The model is also used to calculate the tactical warning time that a boostglide attack would afford an adversary. Other aspects of boost-glide weapons’ military effectiveness are explored. Approximate calculations suggest that, compared to existing non-nuclear weapons, boost-glide weapons could penetrate more deeply but would be less effective at destroying silos. The distance at which a boost-glide weapon armed with a particle dispersion warhead could destroy a mobile missile is also calculated; it is expected to be significantly larger than for an explosive warhead. © 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. | Date: 2013-02-14
Electronic publications, namely, newsletters, alerts, and RSS feeds featuring information on domestic and international foreign policy issues and recorded on computer media; digital materials, namely, downloadable audio files, video files, webcasts, podcasts, multimedia files, text files, and MP3 files, featuring information on domestic and international foreign policy issues. Printed materials, namely, booklets, pamphlets, policy briefs, research reports, conference reports, surveys, and book catalogs featuring domestic and international foreign policy issues. Promoting public awareness of domestic and international foreign policy issues. Educational services, namely, organizing and conducting conferences, symposiums, seminars, forums, classes, workshops, and academic fellowship programs on domestic and international foreign policy issues; research services in the field of foreign policy; publication of the books of others featuring domestic and international foreign policy issues.
PubMed | Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. and Stanford University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015
Studies of the energy return on investment (EROI) for oil production generally rely on aggregated statistics for large regions or countries. In order to better understand the drivers of the energy productivity of oil production, we use a novel approach that applies a detailed field-level engineering model of oil and gas production to estimate energy requirements of drilling, producing, processing, and transporting crude oil. We examine 40 global oilfields, utilizing detailed data for each field from hundreds of technical and scientific data sources. Resulting net energy return (NER) ratios for studied oil fields range from 2 to 100 MJ crude oil produced per MJ of total fuels consumed. External energy return (EER) ratios, which compare energy produced to energy consumed from external sources, exceed 1000:1 for fields that are largely self-sufficient. The lowest energy returns are found to come from thermally-enhanced oil recovery technologies. Results are generally insensitive to reasonable ranges of assumptions explored in sensitivity analysis. Fields with very large associated gas production are sensitive to assumptions about surface fluids processing due to the shifts in energy consumed under different gas treatment configurations. This model does not currently include energy invested in building oilfield capital equipment (e.g., drilling rigs), nor does it include other indirect energy uses such as labor or services.