Tankel S.,United International University Dhanmondi |
Tankel S.,Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Studies in Conflict and Terrorism | Year: 2014
India has been confronting jihadist violence for decades. Although expeditionary terrorism by Pakistani militants typically receives the most focus, indigenous actors, many benefitting from Pakistani support, are responsible for the majority of jihadist attacks in India. Yet the dynamics of Indian jihadism remain under-explored. This article examines the Indian Mujahideen (IM), which constitutes the primary indigenous jihadist threat. It argues the IM is best understood as a label for a network of modules, with a loose leadership, that is connected to smaller, self-organizing clusters of would-be militants as well as to foreign militant groups like the Pakistani Lashkar-e-Taiba. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source
Jaccard M.,Simon Fraser University |
Tu J.,Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2011
China is the world's largest carbon dioxide (CO 2) emitter and its energy system is dominated by coal. For China to dramatically reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the next few decades, it must either replace most of its uses of coal with energy supplies from renewables and nuclear power or install demonstration-size and then scaled-up carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. Currently, China is pushing ahead with increased investment in renewables and nuclear power and with demonstration CCS projects. This strategy is consistent with a country that seeks to be ready in case global pressures prompt it to launch an aggressive GHG reduction effort while also not going so fast that it reduces the likelihood of receiving substantial financial support from wealthier countries, as it feels it is entitled to as a developing country. At such a time, given the magnitude of the coal resource in China, and the country's lack of other energy resources, it is likely the Chinese will make a substantial effort to develop CCS before taking the much more difficult step of trying to phase-out almost all use of coal in the span of just a few decades in a country that is so dependent on this domestically abundant and economically affordable resource. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Acton J.M.,Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Science and Global Security | Year: 2015
The United States, Russia and China are developing hypersonic boost-glide vehicles. A simple model of their trajectory is developed by assuming that the vehicle does not oscillate during the transition to equilibrium gliding. This model is used to analyze U.S. Department of Defense data on test flights for the Hypersonic Technology Vehicle-2. This glider’s lift-to-drag ratio—a key performance parameter—is estimated to be 2.6. The model is also used to calculate the tactical warning time that a boostglide attack would afford an adversary. Other aspects of boost-glide weapons’ military effectiveness are explored. Approximate calculations suggest that, compared to existing non-nuclear weapons, boost-glide weapons could penetrate more deeply but would be less effective at destroying silos. The distance at which a boost-glide weapon armed with a particle dispersion warhead could destroy a mobile missile is also calculated; it is expected to be significantly larger than for an explosive warhead. © 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source
Mao X.,Beijing Normal University |
Yang S.,Beijing Normal University |
Liu Q.,Beijing Normal University |
Liu Q.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment |
And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2012
Transportation in China has joined the power generation as well as the steel and iron industries as one of the major CO 2 emission sectors. To determine the effective policy instrument(s) for reducing CO 2 emission, various policy instruments, which are likely to be implemented in the near future or have been implemented in China, are examined and compared. These instruments include carbon tax, energy tax, fuel tax, clean energy vehicle subsidy, and reduction on ticket price. The CIMS model system is employed as the simulation vehicle to predict the emission dynamics of CO 2 and local air pollutants under business-as-usual and policy scenarios for the transportation sector of China from 2008 to 2050. The 2020 CO 2 reduction target is set according to the national carbon intensity reduction pledge of China. The policy instruments proposed in the present research can all help mitigate the CO 2 emission intensity of the Chinese transportation industry to different extents, and then induce the co-benefits of local air pollutants reduction. Among these policy instruments, energy and fuel taxes, with the tax rates set, are the two most promising instruments for CO 2 emission intensity reduction to reach the 2020 carbon intensity reduction targets, whereas subsidies are the least promising options. CO 2 tax could be an effective policy tool, but with the suggested low tax rate during discussions in China, it is unlikely that the transportation sector would significantly contribute to achieving a desirable carbon intensity reduction. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source
"Five years ago today a magnitude 9.0 earthquake off the coast of northeastern Japan unleashed a powerful, 30-foot-high tsunami that swept across the landscape, killing 15,000 people, displacing nearly 400,000 others, and triggering one of the worst nuclear disasters in history — a triple meltdown at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The disaster has dramatically altered Japanese society and caused nations around the world to reconsider the efficacy of nuclear power generation, particularly given the costs of cleaning up the disaster and compensating victims will likely be $100 billion — a bill that the Japanese government, not the electricity company that owned the plant, has been picking up. James Acton, the co-director of the national nuclear program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, said that when thinking about the disaster's impact on Japanese society, it's important to remember its scope and the thousands upon thousands of lives lost in the tidal wave alone. "