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Cu S.,University of Adelaide | Collins H.M.,University of Adelaide | Betts N.S.,University of Adelaide | March T.J.,University of Adelaide | And 8 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2016

Water uptake by mature barley grains initiates germination and is the first stage in the malting process. Here we have investigated the effects of starchy endosperm cell wall thickness on water uptake, together with the effects of varying amounts of the wall polysaccharide, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan. In the latter case, we examined mutant barley lines from a mutant library and transgenic barley lines in which the (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan synthase gene, HvCslF6, was down-regulated by RNA interference. Neither cell wall thickness nor the levels of grain (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan were significantly correlated with water uptake but are likely to influence modification during malting. However, when a barley mapping population was phenotyped for rate of water uptake into grain, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified specific regions of chromosomes 4H, 5H and 7H that accounted for approximately 17%, 18% and 11%, respectively, of the phenotypic variation. These data indicate that variation in water uptake rates by elite malting cultivars of barley is genetically controlled and a number of candidate genes that might control the trait were identified under the QTL. The genomics data raise the possibility that the genetic variation in water uptake rates might be exploited by breeders for the benefit of the malting and brewing industries. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Seibold M.,University of Vienna | Wolschann P.,University of Vienna | Olsen O.,Carlsberg Group Research
Monatshefte fur Chemie | Year: 2011

Colonies of the fungus Penicillium brevicompactum Dierckx contain exudate droplets on the surface of the mycelia when grown on Murashige and Skoog medium. It was previously shown that the exudate is enriched in the bubble protein. Here, we show that the exudate bubbles are also enriched in a fluorescent non-protein molecule, which upon isolation and characterisation was determined as mycophenolic acid. Based on this discovery, mycophenolic acid from exudate bubbles may constitute an alternative source for purification of the metabolite for clinical use. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source

Seibold M.,University of Vienna | Wolschann P.,University of Vienna | Bodevin S.,Carlsberg Group Research | Olsen O.,Carlsberg Group Research
Peptides | Year: 2011

Colonies of the ascomycete fungus Penicillium brevicompactum Dierckx produce bright yellow-green fluorescent exudate bubbles on its surface when grown on standard plant cell culture medium. According to SDS-PAGE analysis, the exudate is enriched in one protein, named bubble protein (BP). Detailed characteristics of BP are described, and also its corresponding genomic promoter and terminator sequences that flank sequences encoding signal peptide and a precursor sequence upstream of that of the mature protein. Following on previous work, the protein is now biochemically characterized. BP, the structure of which mainly consists of beta sheets, has four very stable disulfide bridges that resist standard procedures for reduction. With such traits, BP can now be categorized as a new member of the ever growing class of defensins. Indeed, the protein revealed anti-fungal effects as it inhibits growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a dose-dependent manner. Structural classification places BP into the group of proteins with a knottin fold, founding the BP superfamily. Based on genomic alignments that revealed very high homology to four proteins of related fungi, a 3D structure prediction of the corresponding proteins was made. In addition, it was discovered that the closely related fungus Penicillium chrysogenum encodes a BP homolog - in addition to its PAF protein, which also is similar to BP - further suggesting that fungi may possess more than one defensin. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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