Carlos Slim Health Institute

Mexico City, Mexico

Carlos Slim Health Institute

Mexico City, Mexico
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PubMed | Ministry of Health, Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica, Hospital Infantil Of Mexico Federico Gomez, University of Texas Medical Branch and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2015

Dengue imposes a substantial economic and disease burden in most tropical and subtropical countries. Dengue incidence and severity have dramatically increased in Mexico during the past decades. Having objective and comparable estimates of the economic burden of dengue is essential to inform health policy, increase disease awareness, and assess the impact of dengue prevention and control technologies.We estimated the annual economic and disease burden of dengue in Mexico for the years 2010-2011. We merged multiple data sources, including a prospective cohort study; patient interviews and macro-costing from major hospitals; surveillance, budget, and health data from the Ministry of Health; WHO cost estimates; and available literature. We conducted a probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations to derive 95% certainty levels (CL) for our estimates. Results suggest that Mexico had about 139,000 (95%CL: 128,000-253,000) symptomatic and 119 (95%CL: 75-171) fatal dengue episodes annually on average (2010-2011), compared to an average of 30,941 symptomatic and 59 fatal dengue episodes reported. The annual cost, including surveillance and vector control, was US$170 (95%CL: 151-292) million, or $1.56 (95%CL: 1.38-2.68) per capita, comparable to other countries in the region. Of this, $87 (95%CL: 87-209) million or $0.80 per capita (95%CL: 0.62-1.12) corresponds to illness. Annual disease burden averaged 65 (95%CL: 36-99) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per million population. Inclusion of long-term sequelae, co-morbidities, impact on tourism, and health system disruption during outbreaks would further increase estimated economic and disease burden.With this study, Mexico joins Panama, Puerto Rico, Nicaragua, and Thailand as the only countries or areas worldwide with comprehensive (illness and preventive) empirical estimates of dengue burden. Burden varies annually; during an outbreak, dengue burden may be significantly higher than that of the pre-vaccine level of rotavirus diarrhea. In sum, Mexicos potential economic benefits from dengue control would be substantial.


PubMed | Ministry of Health, Baylor College of Medicine, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Brandeis University and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2014

Dengue presents a formidable and growing global economic and disease burden, with around half the worlds population estimated to be at risk of infection. There is wide variation and substantial uncertainty in current estimates of dengue disease burden and, consequently, on economic burden estimates. Dengue disease varies across time, geography and persons affected. Variations in the transmission of four different viruses and interactions among vector density and hosts immune status, age, pre-existing medical conditions, all contribute to the diseases complexity. This systematic review aims to identify and examine estimates of dengue disease burden and costs, discuss major sources of uncertainty, and suggest next steps to improve estimates. Economic analysis of dengue is mainly concerned with costs of illness, particularly in estimating total episodes of symptomatic dengue. However, national dengue disease reporting systems show a great diversity in design and implementation, hindering accurate global estimates of dengue episodes and country comparisons. A combination of immediate, short-, and long-term strategies could substantially improve estimates of disease and, consequently, of economic burden of dengue. Suggestions for immediate implementation include refining analysis of currently available data to adjust reported episodes and expanding data collection in empirical studies, such as documenting the number of ambulatory visits before and after hospitalization and including breakdowns by age. Short-term recommendations include merging multiple data sources, such as cohort and surveillance data to evaluate the accuracy of reporting rates (by health sector, treatment, severity, etc.), and using covariates to extrapolate dengue incidence to locations with no or limited reporting. Long-term efforts aim at strengthening capacity to document dengue transmission using serological methods to systematically analyze and relate to epidemiologic data. As promising tools for diagnosis, vaccination, vector control, and treatment are being developed, these recommended steps should improve objective, systematic measures of dengue burden to strengthen health policy decisions.


Knaul F.M.,Harvard University | Knaul F.M.,Mexican Health Foundation | Gonzalez-Pier E.,Mexican Institute of Social Security | Gomez-Dantes O.,National Institute of Public Health of Mexico | And 16 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Mexico is reaching universal health coverage in 2012. A national health insurance programme called Seguro Popular, introduced in 2003, is providing access to a package of comprehensive health services with fi nancial protection for more than 50 million Mexicans previously excluded from insurance. Universal coverage in Mexico is synonymous with social protection of health. This report analyses the road to universal coverage along three dimensions of protection: against health risks, for patients through quality assurance of health care, and against the fi nancial consequences of disease and injury. We present a conceptual discussion of the transition from labour-based social security to social protection of health, which implies access to eff ective health care as a universal right based on citizenship, the ethical basis of the Mexican reform. We discuss the conditions that prompted the reform, as well as its design and inception, and we describe the 9-year, evidence-driven implementation process, including updates and improvements to the original programme. The core of the report concentrates on the eff ects and impacts of the reform, based on analysis of all published and publically available scientifi c literature and new data. Evidence indicates that Seguro Popular is improving access to health services and reducing the prevalence of catastrophic and impoverishing health expenditures, e specially for the poor. Recent studies also show improvement in eff ective coverage. This research then addresses persistent challenges, including the need to translate fi nancial resources into more eff ective, equitable and responsive health services. A next generation of reforms will be required and these include systemic measures to complete the reorganisation of the health system by functions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the Mexican quest to achieve universal health coverage and its relevance for other low-income and middle-income countries.


Tapia-Conyer R.,Carlos Slim Health Institute | Betancourt-Cravioto M.,Carlos Slim Health Institute | Saucedo-Martinez R.,Carlos Slim Health Institute | Motta-Murguia L.,PPAL Bureau of Public Affairs and Communication | Gallardo-Rincon H.,Carlos Slim Health Institute
Vaccine | Year: 2013

Despite many successes in the region, Latin American vaccination policies have significant shortcomings, and further work is needed to maintain progress and prepare for the introduction of newly available vaccines. In order to address the challenges facing Latin America, the Commission for the Future of Vaccines in Latin America (COFVAL) has made recommendations for strengthening evidence-based policy-making and reducing regional inequalities in immunisation. We have conducted a comprehensive literature review to assess the feasibility of these recommendations. Standardisation of performance indicators for disease burden, vaccine coverage, epidemiological surveillance and national health resourcing can ensure comparability of the data used to assess vaccination programmes, allowing deeper analysis of how best to provide services. Regional vaccination reference schemes, as used in Europe, can be used to develop best practice models for vaccine introduction and scheduling. Successful models exist for the continuous training of vaccination providers and decision-makers, with a new Latin American diploma aiming to contribute to the successful implementation of vaccination programmes. Permanent, independent vaccine advisory committees, based on the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), could facilitate the uptake of new vaccines and support evidence-based decision-making in the administration of national immunisation programmes. Innovative financing mechanisms for the purchase of new vaccines, such as advance market commitments and cost front-loading, have shown potential for improving vaccine coverage. A common regulatory framework for vaccine approval is needed to accelerate delivery and pool human, technological and scientific resources in the region. Finally, public-private partnerships between industry, government, academia and non-profit sectors could provide new investment to stimulate vaccine development in the region, reducing prices in the long term. These reforms are now crucial, particularly as vaccines for previously neglected, developing-world diseases become available. In summary, a regionally-coordinated health policy will reduce vaccination inequality in Latin America. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Tapia-Conyer R.,Carlos Slim Health Institute | Gallardo-Rincon H.,Carlos Slim Health Institute | Saucedo-Martinez R.,Carlos Slim Health Institute
Perspectives in Public Health | Year: 2015

Mexico and other Latin American countries are currently facing a dramatic increase in the number of adults suffering from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), which require prolonged, continuous care. This epidemiological shift has created new challenges for health-care systems. Both the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations (UN) have recognised the growing human and economic costs of NCDs and outlined an action plan, recognising that NCDs are preventable, often with common preventable risk factors linked to risky health behaviours. In line with international best practices, Mexico has applied a number of approaches to tackle these diseases. However, challenges remain for the Mexican health-care system, and in planning a strategy for combating and preventing NCDs, it must consider how best to integrate these strategies with existing health-care infrastructure. Shifting the paradigm of care in Mexico from a curative, passive approach to a preventive, proactive model will require an innovative and replicable system that guarantees availability of medicines and services, strengthens human capital through ongoing professional education, expands early and continuous access to care through proactive prevention strategies and incorporates technological innovations in order to do so. Here, we describe CASALUD: an innovative model in health-care that leverages international best practices and uses innovative technology to deliver NCD care, control and prevention. In addition, we describe the lessons learned from the initial implementation of the model for its effective use in Mexico, as well as the plans for wider implementation throughout the country, in partnership with the Mexican Ministry of Health. © Royal Society for Public Health 2013.


Tapia-Conyer R.,Carlos Slim Health Institute | Betancourt-Cravioto M.,Carlos Slim Health Institute | Mendez-Galvan J.,Hospital Infantil Of Mexico Federico Gomez
Paediatrics and International Child Health | Year: 2012

Dengue infection is a significant and escalating public health problem in Latin America. Its re-emergence and subsequent rise in the region over the past 50 years has largely been caused by a combination of a lack of political will, the radical growth of urban populations, migration flow and insufficient financial resources. Its increased incidence has been compounded by climate change, poor sanitation and extreme poverty, which lead to more breeding sites of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. In order to control dengue effectively, an integrated approach incorporating vector management and environmental and social solutions is required. To achieve success, these programmes require commitment and responses at both national and community level. The development of a vaccine is a vital tool in the fight against dengue. For successful introduction, those implementing vaccination need to be educated on the value of such a strategy. Effective political leadership, innovative financial mechanisms and co-operation across all disciplines, sectors and national borders are essential to eradication of the disease. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2012.


Tapia-Conyer R.,Carlos Slim Health Institute | Mendez-Galvan J.,Hospital Infantil Of Mexico Federico Gomez | Burciaga-Zuniga P.,National Programme for Vector Borne Diseases
Paediatrics and International Child Health | Year: 2012

Community participation is vital to prevent and control the spread of dengue in Latin America. Initiatives such as the integrated management strategy for dengue prevention and control (IMS-Dengue) and integrated vector management (IVM) incorporate social mobilisation and behavioural change at the community level as part of a wider strategy to control dengue. These strategies aim to improve the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, environmental impact and sustainability of vector control strategies. Community empowerment is a key aspect of the strategy as it allows the local population to drive eradication of the disease in their environment. Through the patio limpio campaign, the concept of community participation has been employed in Mexico to raise awareness of the consequences of dengue. Patio limpio consists of training local people to identify, eliminate, monitor and evaluate vector breeding sites systematically in households under their supervision. A community participation programme in Guerrero State found that approximately 54% were clean and free of breeding sites. Households that were not visited and assessed had a 2.4-times higher risk of developing dengue than those that were. However, after a year, only 30% of trained households had a clean backyard. This emphasises the need for a sustainable process to encourage individuals to maintain efforts in keeping their environment free of dengue. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2012.


PubMed | Carlos Slim Health Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2013

Despite many successes in the region, Latin American vaccination policies have significant shortcomings, and further work is needed to maintain progress and prepare for the introduction of newly available vaccines. In order to address the challenges facing Latin America, the Commission for the Future of Vaccines in Latin America (COFVAL) has made recommendations for strengthening evidence-based policy-making and reducing regional inequalities in immunisation. We have conducted a comprehensive literature review to assess the feasibility of these recommendations. Standardisation of performance indicators for disease burden, vaccine coverage, epidemiological surveillance and national health resourcing can ensure comparability of the data used to assess vaccination programmes, allowing deeper analysis of how best to provide services. Regional vaccination reference schemes, as used in Europe, can be used to develop best practice models for vaccine introduction and scheduling. Successful models exist for the continuous training of vaccination providers and decision-makers, with a new Latin American diploma aiming to contribute to the successful implementation of vaccination programmes. Permanent, independent vaccine advisory committees, based on the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), could facilitate the uptake of new vaccines and support evidence-based decision-making in the administration of national immunisation programmes. Innovative financing mechanisms for the purchase of new vaccines, such as advance market commitments and cost front-loading, have shown potential for improving vaccine coverage. A common regulatory framework for vaccine approval is needed to accelerate delivery and pool human, technological and scientific resources in the region. Finally, public-private partnerships between industry, government, academia and non-profit sectors could provide new investment to stimulate vaccine development in the region, reducing prices in the long term. These reforms are now crucial, particularly as vaccines for previously neglected, developing-world diseases become available. In summary, a regionally-coordinated health policy will reduce vaccination inequality in Latin America.


PubMed | Carlos Slim Health Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Perspectives in public health | Year: 2015

Mexico and other Latin American countries are currently facing a dramatic increase in the number of adults suffering from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), which require prolonged, continuous care. This epidemiological shift has created new challenges for health-care systems. Both the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations (UN) have recognised the growing human and economic costs of NCDs and outlined an action plan, recognising that NCDs are preventable, often with common preventable risk factors linked to risky health behaviours. In line with international best practices, Mexico has applied a number of approaches to tackle these diseases. However, challenges remain for the Mexican health-care system, and in planning a strategy for combating and preventing NCDs, it must consider how best to integrate these strategies with existing health-care infrastructure. Shifting the paradigm of care in Mexico from a curative, passive approach to a preventive, proactive model will require an innovative and replicable system that guarantees availability of medicines and services, strengthens human capital through ongoing professional education, expands early and continuous access to care through proactive prevention strategies and incorporates technological innovations in order to do so. Here, we describe CASALUD: an innovative model in health-care that leverages international best practices and uses innovative technology to deliver NCD care, control and prevention. In addition, we describe the lessons learned from the initial implementation of the model for its effective use in Mexico, as well as the plans for wider implementation throughout the country, in partnership with the Mexican Ministry of Health.


PubMed | Carlos Slim Health Institute
Type: | Journal: Paediatrics and international child health | Year: 2012

Community participation is vital to prevent and control the spread of dengue in Latin America. Initiatives such as the integrated management strategy for dengue prevention and control (IMS-Dengue) and integrated vector management (IVM) incorporate social mobilisation and behavioural change at the community level as part of a wider strategy to control dengue. These strategies aim to improve the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, environmental impact and sustainability of vector control strategies. Community empowerment is a key aspect of the strategy as it allows the local population to drive eradication of the disease in their environment. Through the patio limpio campaign, the concept of community participation has been employed in Mexico to raise awareness of the consequences of dengue. patio limpio consists of training local people to identify, eliminate, monitor and evaluate vector breeding sites systematically in households under their supervision. A community participation programme in Guerrero State found that approximately 54% were clean and free of breeding sites. Households that were not visited and assessed had a 24-times higher risk of developing dengue than those that were. However, after a year, only 30% of trained households had a clean backyard. This emphasises the need for a sustainable process to encourage individuals to maintain efforts in keeping their environment free of dengue.

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