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Garcia-Esquinas E.,Carlos III Institute of Health Institute Salud Carlos III ISCIII | Garcia-Esquinas E.,Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health | Garcia-Esquinas E.,Johns Hopkins University | Perez-Gomez B.,Carlos III Institute of Health Institute Salud Carlos III ISCIII | And 24 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: In Spain, few studies have evaluated prenatal exposure to heavy metals. The objective of this study was to describe lead, mercury and cadmium concentrations in blood from a sample of newborn-mother-father trios, as well as to investigate the association between metals in cord blood and parental variables. We also explored the relationship between cord blood metal concentrations and child characteristics at birth. Methods. Metal correlations among family members were assessed using Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient. Linear regression was used to explore the association between parental variables and log-transformed cord blood lead and cord blood mercury concentrations. In the case of cadmium, tobit regression was used due to the existence of samples below the detection limit. The association between cord blood metal concentrations and child characteristics at birth was evaluated using linear regression. Results: Geometric means for lead, mercury and cadmium were 14.09 μg/L, 6.72 μg/L and 0.27 μg/L in newborns; 19.80 μg/L, 3.90 μg/L and 0.53 μg/L in pregnant women; and 33.00 μg/L, 5.38 μg/L and 0.49 μg/L in men. Positive correlations were found between metal concentrations among members of the trio. Lead and cadmium concentrations were 15% and 22% higher in newborns from mothers who smoked during pregnancy, while mercury concentrations were 25% higher in newborns from mothers with greater fish intake. Cord-blood lead levels showed seasonal periodicity, with lower concentrations observed in winter. Cord blood cadmium concentrations over 0.29 μg/L were associated with lower 1-minute and 5-minute Apgar scores. Conclusions: These results reinforce the need to establish biomonitoring programs in Spain, and provide support for tobacco smoke and fish consumption as important preventable sources of heavy metal exposure in newborns. Additionally, our findings support the hypothesis that cadmium exposure might be deleterious to fetal development. © 2013 García-Esquinas et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Garcia-Esquinas E.,Carlos III Institute of Health Institute Salud Carlos III ISCIII | Garcia-Esquinas E.,CIBER ISCIII | Aragones N.,Carlos III Institute of Health Institute Salud Carlos III ISCIII | Aragones N.,CIBER ISCIII | And 24 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

This study is part of the BioMadrid Project, a bio-monitoring study designed to assess pollutants in the environment surrounding children born in the Madrid region. Our aim in this report is to evaluate the association between prenatal lead exposure and fetal development using three biological samples (maternal and paternal blood lead at around 34 weeks of gestation as well as cord blood lead levels), three biomarkers of effect in cord blood peripheral lymphocytes (micronucleus in binucleated cells, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds), and different anthropometrical characteristics at birth. Maternal and cord blood lead were not associated with newborn measurements or genotoxicity biomarkers. In contrast, increases in father blood lead were coupled with lower weight (mean difference (MD), -110.8 g; 95 % confidence intervals (95%CI), -235.6 to 6.00; p < 0.10) and shorter abdominal (MD, -0.81 cm; 95%CI, -1.64 to 0.00; p < 0.05) and cephalic (MD, -0.32 cm; 95%CI, -0.65 to 0.00; p < 0.05) circumferences at birth as well as with the presence of nucleoplasmic bridges (odds ratio, 1.03; 95%CI, 1.00 to 1.06; p < 0.05) and nuclear buds (odds ratio, 1.02; 95%CI, 0.99 to 1.04; p < 0.10). These associations were mainly confined to female babies, in whom paternal lead was also inversely associated with length. Our results support the hypothesis that paternal lead exposure may be affecting the development of newborns. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Garcia-Esquinas E.,Carlos III Institute of Health Institute Salud Carlos III ISCIII | Garcia-Esquinas E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Garcia-Esquinas E.,CIBER ISCIII | Guino E.,CIBER ISCIII | And 46 more authors.
Acta Diabetologica | Year: 2016

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of diabetes and diabetes treatment with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Methods: Histologically confirmed incident cases of postmenopausal breast (N = 916) cancer were recruited from 23 Spanish public hospitals. Population-based controls (N = 1094) were randomly selected from primary care center lists within the catchment areas of the participant hospitals. ORs (95 % CI) were estimated using mixed-effects logistic regression models, using the recruitment center as a random effect term. Breast tumors were classified into hormone receptor positive (ER+ or PR+), HER2+ and triple negative (TN). Results: Diabetes was not associated with the overall risk of breast cancer (OR 1.09; 95 % CI 0.82–1.45), and it was only linked to the risk of developing TN tumors: Among 91 women with TN tumors, 18.7 % were diabetic, while the corresponding figure among controls was 9.9 % (OR 2.25; 95 % CI 1.22–4.15). Regarding treatment, results showed that insulin use was more prevalent among diabetic cases (2.5 %) as compared to diabetic controls (0.7 %); OR 2.98; 95 % CI 1.26–7.01. They also showed that, among diabetics, the risk of developing HR+/HER2− tumors decreased with longer metformin use (ORper year 0.89; 95 % CI 0.81–0.99; based on 24 cases and 43 controls). Conclusion: This study reinforces the need to correctly classify breast cancers when studying their association with diabetes. Given the low survival rates in women diagnosed with TN breast tumors and the potential impact of diabetes control on breast cancer prevention, more studies are needed to better characterize this association. © 2015, The Author(s).

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