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Ottawa, Canada

Carleton University is a comprehensive university located in the capital of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. The enabling legislation is The Carleton University Act, 1952, S.O. 1952. Originally founded on rented premises in 1942, Carleton would grow in size to meet the needs of returning World War II veterans and later became Ontario's first private, non-denominational college. It would expand further in the 1960s, consistent with government policy that saw increased access to higher education as a social good and means to economic growth, and is today a public university, offering more than 65 academic programs across a wide range of disciplines. Carleton is reputed for its strength in a variety of fields, such as engineering, humanities, international business and many of the disciplines housed in its Faculty of Public Affairs .It is named after the former Carleton County, Ontario, which included the city of Ottawa at the time Carleton was founded. Carleton County, in turn, was named in honour of Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, an early Governor-General of British North America. Carleton currently houses more than 22,000 undergraduate and more than 3,000 postgraduate students. Its campus is located west of Old Ottawa South, within close proximity to The Glebe and Confederation Heights, and is bounded to the north by the Rideau Canal and Dow's Lake and to the south by the Rideau River. The university is represented in Canadian Interuniversity Sport by the Carleton Ravens. Wikipedia.


Villeneuve P.J.,Carleton University
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2014

Few studies have investigated associations between nonoccupational exposure to ambient volatile organic compounds and lung cancer. We conducted a case-control study of 445 incident lung cancers and 948 controls (523 hospital, 425 general population) in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, between 1997 and 2002. Participants provided information on several risk factors, including tobacco use, secondhand exposure to cigarette smoke, obesity, and family history of cancer. Exposure to benzene, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen dioxide was estimated using land-use regression models. Exposures were linked to residential addresses to estimate exposure at the time of interview, 10 years before interview, and across past residences (time-weighted average). Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Analyses involving the population-based controls found that an interquartile-range increase in the time-weighted average benzene concentration (0.15 g/m3) across previous residences was associated with lung cancer (odds ratio = 1.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 2.68). Similarly, an interquartile-range increase in the time-weighted average nitrogen dioxide concentration (4.8 ppb) yielded an odds ratio of 1.59 (95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.12). Our study suggests that long-term exposure to ambient volatile organic compounds and nitrogen dioxide at relatively low concentrations is associated with lung cancer. Further work is needed to evaluate joint relationships between these pollutants, smoking, and lung cancer. © The Author 2013. Source


Morgan Y.L.,Carleton University
IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials | Year: 2010

The Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) standards suite is based on multiple cooperating standards mainly developed by the IEEE. In particular, we focus this paper on the core design aspects of DSRC which is called Wireless Access in Vehicular Networks (WAVE). WAVE is highlighted in IEEE 1609.1/.2/.3/.4. The DSRC and WAVE standards have been the center of major attention in both research and industrial communities. In 2008, WAVE standard was the third best seller standards in the history of the IEEE. This attention reflects the potential of WAVE to facilitate much of the vehicular safety applications. In this paper we present a fairly detailed tutorial of the WAVE standards. We extend the paper by describing some of the lessons learned from particular design approaches. We direct the reader to the landmark research papers in relevant topics. We alert the reader about major open research issues that might lead to future contribution to the WAVE design. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Barry S.T.,Carleton University
Coordination Chemistry Reviews | Year: 2013

The thermolysis of metal compounds incorporating amidinate-type ligands (RN(H)C(X)NR, where R is any alkyl and X is an alkyl or an amido) show a great complexity and diversity. Amidinates and guanidinates of copper(I), aluminium(III) and gallium(III) can undergo thermal decomposition by two main routes: elimination of carbodiimide (here called "deinsertion") and by abstraction of a β-hydrogen. In general terms carbodiimide deinsertion tends to be a low temperature and solution-based thermolysis route, and β-hydrogen elimination tends to be a high temperature and gas phase thermolysis path. There is little difference between amidinates and guanidiantes in this respect: both ligands show these decomposition pathways on a variety of metal centres. The iminopyrrolidinate (ip) ligand can be designed without β-hydrogens, and so the ligand tert-butyl-imino-2,2-dimethylpyrrolidinate (tBu-ip) was used on copper(I) to successfully show that this compound does not undergo these two thermolyses, but undergoes a much higher thermolysis through loss of the iminotertbutyl group and subsequent decomposition of the five-membered ring. This "redesigned" ligand boosts the thermal stability of the copper(I) dimer from 225°C for [CuI{(iPrN)2CNMe2}]2 to 350°C for [CuI(Me2-tBu-ip)]2. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


This article examines the motivations, techniques and potential consequences of the governance of teenage sexting. I examine the over-representation of white, middle-class, heterosexual, female sexters, and abstinence from sexting discourses in the ‘Respect Yourself’ child protection/crime prevention initiative. This campaign, I suggest, exploits slut shaming in an effort to responsibilize teenage girls for preventing the purported harms that may flow from sexting—including humiliation, sexual violations and criminalization—for both themselves and their peers. I examine this responsibilization effort through the lens of critical whiteness, queer, girlhood/young feminist and porn studies’ theorizations of the politics of sexual respectability and sexual subjectification and argue that this campaign simultaneously: reveals anxieties about the decline of the moral authority of the white, middle-class, heterosexual nuclear family; constitutes certain teenage girls’ unintelligibility as sexual subjects; and, undermines teenage girls’ ability to challenge a normative sexual order in which they are often blamed extra/legally for their sexual victimization. © The Author(s) 2013. Source


Fahrig L.,Carleton University
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2013

I challenge (1) the assumption that habitat patches are natural units of measurement for species richness, and (2) the assumption of distinct effects of habitat patch size and isolation on species richness. I propose a simpler view of the relationship between habitat distribution and species richness, the 'habitat amount hypothesis', and I suggest ways of testing it. The habitat amount hypothesis posits that, for habitat patches in a matrix of non-habitat, the patch size effect and the patch isolation effect are driven mainly by a single underlying process, the sample area effect. The hypothesis predicts that species richness in equal-sized sample sites should increase with the total amount of habitat in the 'local landscape' of the sample site, where the local landscape is the area within an appropriate distance of the sample site. It also predicts that species richness in a sample site is independent of the area of the particular patch in which the sample site is located (its 'local patch'), except insofar as the area of that patch contributes to the amount of habitat in the local landscape of the sample site. The habitat amount hypothesis replaces two predictor variables, patch size and isolation, with a single predictor variable, habitat amount, when species richness is analysed for equal-sized sample sites rather than for unequal-sized habitat patches. Studies to test the hypothesis should ensure that 'habitat' is correctly defined, and the spatial extent of the local landscape is appropriate, for the species group under consideration. If supported, the habitat amount hypothesis would mean that to predict the relationship between habitat distribution and species richness: (1) distinguishing between patch-scale and landscape-scale habitat effects is unnecessary; (2) distinguishing between patch size effects and patch isolation effects is unnecessary; (3) considering habitat configuration independent of habitat amount is unnecessary; and (4) delineating discrete habitat patches is unnecessary. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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