Hagenkord J.M.,Creighton University |
Hagenkord J.M.,IKaryos Diagnostics Inc. |
Gatalica Z.,Caris Life science Inc |
Jonasch E.,University of Houston |
And 2 more authors.
Kidney and upper urinary tract cancers account for approximately 54,000 cases every year in the United States, and represent about 3.7% of adult malignancies, with more than 13,000 annual deaths. Classification of renal tumors is typically based on histomorphologic characteristics but, on occasion, morphologic characteristics are not sufficient. Each of the most common histologic subtypes harbors specific recurrent genetic abnormalities, such as deletion of 3p in conventional clear cell carcinoma, trisomy 7 and 17 in papillary renal cell carcinoma, multiple monosomies in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, and a nearly diploid genome in benign oncocytomas. Knowledge of this information can provide diagnostic support and prognostic refinement in renal epithelial tumors. Identification of the specific subtype of a renal tumor is critical in guiding surveillance for recurrence and the appropriate use of targeted therapies. Cytogenomic arrays are increasingly being used as a clinical tool for genome-wide assessment of copy number and loss of heterozygosity in renal tumors. In addition, the improved understanding of the hereditary causes of renal tumors and their role in sporadic malignancies has led to the development of more effective targeted therapies. This review summarizes the genetic and genomic changes in the most common types of renal epithelial tumors and highlights the clinical implications of these aberrations. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source
Caris Life science Inc. | Date: 2011-05-27
Provided herein are methods and systems of molecular profiling of diseases, such as cancer. The molecular profiling can be used to provide a diagnosis, prognosis, or theranosis for the disease, such as identifying a candidate treatment. The methods can detect overexpression of SPARC and HSP90. The cancer can be, e.g., a renal cell carcinoma or an interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma.
Huo X.,University of North Texas |
Zhang H.Y.,University of North Texas |
Zhang X.I.,University of North Texas |
Lynch J.P.,University of Pennsylvania |
And 12 more authors.
Background & Aims: It is not clear why only a minority of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) develop Barrett's esophagus. We hypothesized that differences among individuals in molecular pathways activated when esophageal squamous epithelium is exposed to reflux underlie the development of Barrett's metaplasia. Methods: We used esophageal squamous cell lines from patients who had GERD with Barrett's esophagus (normal esophageal squamous [NES]-B3T and NES-B10T) and without Barrett's esophagus (NES-G2T and NES-G4T) to study effects of acid and bile salts on expression of the CDX2 gene. Bay 11-705, Ad5 inhibitor κB(IκB)α-SR, and site-directed mutagenesis were used to explore effects of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibition on CDX2 promoter activity; DNA binding of the NF-κB subunits p50 and p65 was assessed by chromatin immune-precipitation. Results: Acid and bile salts increased CDX2 messenger RNA (mRNA), protein, and promoter activity in NES-B3T and NES-B10T cells, but not in NES-G2T or NES-G4T cells. Inhibition of NF-κB abolished the increase in CDX2 promoter activity. Increased CDX2 promoter activity was associated with nuclear translocation of p50, which bound to the promoter. We found CDX2 mRNA in 7 of 10 esophageal squamous biopsy specimens from patients with Barrett's esophagus, but in only 1 of 10 such specimens from patients who had GERD without Barrett's esophagus. Conclusions: Acid and bile salts induce CDX2 mRNA and protein expression in esophageal squamous cells from patients with Barrett's esophagus, but not from GERD patients without Barrett's esophagus. We speculate that these differences in acid- and bile salt-induced activation of molecular pathways may underlie the development of Barrett's metaplasia. © 2010 AGA Institute. Source
Zhang X.,University of North Texas |
Yu C.,University of North Texas |
Wilson K.,University of North Texas |
Zhang H.Y.,University of North Texas |
And 10 more authors.
Background: Human Barrett's cancer cell lines have numerous, poorly-characterized genetic abnormalities and, consequently, those lines have limited utility as models for studying the early molecular events in carcinogenesis. Cell lines with well-defined genetic lesions that recapitulate various stages of neoplastic progression in Barrett's esophagus would be most useful for such studies. Methodology/Principal Findings: To develop such model cell lines, we started with telomerase-immortalized, nonneoplastic Barrett's epithelial (BAR-T) cells, which are spontaneously deficient in p16, and proceeded to knock down p53 using RNAi, to activate Ras by introducing oncogenic H-RasG12V, or both. BAR-T cells infected with either p53 RNAi or oncogenic H-RasG12V alone maintained cell-to-cell contact inhibition and did not exhibit anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. In contrast, the combination of p53 RNAi knockdown with expression of oncogenic H-RasG12V transformed the p16-deficient BAR-T cells, as evidenced by their loss of contact inhibition, by their formation of colonies in soft agar, and by their generation of tumors in immunodeficient mice. Conclusions/Significance: Through these experiments, we have generated a number of transformed and non-transformed cell lines with well-characterized genetic abnormalities recapitulating various stages of carcinogenesis in Barrett's esophagus. These lines should be useful models for the study of carcinogenesis in Barrett's esophagus, and for testing the efficacy of chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. Source