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Fredericton, Canada

Carballini J.,CARIS
GEO: connexion | Year: 2011

The Topography, Hydrography and Cartography Division of the Panama Canal Authority is in charge of surveying, processing and editing all the hydrographic and cartographic information used to produce the navigation charts of the canal. The adoption of international navigation standards in the waters of the canal would also lead to better maintenance and easier updating of the charts. The first stage of this project consisted of the production of two ENCs that covered the entirety of the Panama Canal. The adoption of international navigation standards in the waters of the canal would also lead to better maintenance and easier updating of the charts. Next, the Panama Canal Authority carried out a study of the available tools in the market, taking into account that the dedicated staff already had the required knowledge to carry out the project. Source


Hoggarth A.,CARIS | Kenny K.,Kraken Sonar
2014 Oceans - St. John's, OCEANS 2014 | Year: 2015

SAS is becoming a powerful tool for hydrographic surveys in addition to its original use as a mine detection sensor. This technology can provide very high resolution seafloor imagery and bathymetry over the full extent of the swath. SAS lends itself for use with Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) because of the stable nature of these platforms. As the hydrographic industry begins to adopt AUV technology, especially given the efficiencies they can bring, it is clear that SAS will have a greater role to play. This trend is driving a requirement to support this data effectively in the data processing software tools that are used by the hydrographic industry. This involves new requirements and workflows to handle the increased data volumes that result from the centimeter level resolutions that these sensors are capable of generating. Another key concept is understanding the difference in geometries involved in SAS data collection as it compares to multibeam, the concept of frames of data instead of swaths requires some changes in approach, which will be explained. The data processing emphasis from a survey utilizing a SAS is different from traditional vessel based operations. For example, early experiences suggest that more attention needs to be given to dataset combining rather than data cleaning. Another important observation is understanding how to run a survey with SAS, what line configurations are appropriate when conducting a route survey and how does this differ for an area based survey for the purposes of charting. There are also some technological advancements that could streamline the SAS workflow and aid its adoption as a hydrographic tool. One such technology is variable resolution surface creation. This emerging terrain modelling technique would allow high resolution SAS data and lower resolution multibeam data to be stitched seamlessly together into a single terrain model allowing for more efficient data transfers, more integrated and robust data cleaning techniques and easier object detection. Another advancement that will benefit surveys utilizing this technology is onboard and near real-time data processing solutions. This is being driven by the nature of this data; its density and the autonomous way in which it is collected. This concept will also be explained. The paper's aim will be to not only highlight the new considerations that need to be understood when using this technology as a hydrographic mapping tool, but to also demonstrate this through appropriate use cases. © 2014 IEEE. Source


News Article
Site: http://phys.org/technology-news/

More than eight out of every 10 individuals surveyed said such robots should not be used for aggression, and 67 per cent said they should be banned across the planet. More than a thousand people from 54 countries, including the United States, Canada, South Korea, Mexico and the U.K. answered the survey. It was conducted by the Open Roboethics initiative (ORi), a UBC-based group that studies issues concerning robotics and artificial intelligence. "It has been said that future wars will be fought with completely automated systems," said AJung Moon, ORi spokesperson and a PhD candidate in mechanical engineering at UBC. "The survey results clearly show that more public discussion is necessary so that we can make intelligent decisions about robotic weapon technologies." If pressed to make a choice, most people (71 per cent) said they would prefer that their country use remotely operated weapons—such as the military drones already being used by a few armies—instead of fully autonomous weapons. Many (56 per cent) would prefer that autonomous weapons never be developed or used at all. The survey, one of the largest on the subject, will be presented at the United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) Meeting of States Parties slated for Nov. 12-13. The CCW bans or restricts the use of specific types of weapons that could cause unnecessary or unjustifiable suffering to combatants or affect civilians indiscriminately. "Robotic weapon technology is constantly marching forward, so it's crucial that we have an understanding of public perception and opinion on the matter. This survey certainly contributes to the growing body of information," said Machiel Van der Loos, associate director of UBC's human-robot interaction research group, the Collaborative Advanced Robotics and Intelligent Systems (CARIS) Laboratory. The survey, The Ethics and Governance of Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems, was funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. Visit http://www.openroboethics.org/laws_survey to download copies of the report or to participate in the survey, which will continue to collect data on an ongoing basis. Explore further: Survey shows widespread public opposition to 'killer robots,' support for new ban campaign


Mutchinick O.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran | Luna-Munoz L.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran | Amar E.,Rhone Alps Registry of Birth Defects REMERA | Bakker M.K.,University of Groningen | And 21 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics | Year: 2011

Conjoined twins (CT) are a very rare developmental accident of uncertain etiology. Prevalence has been previously estimated to be 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 births. The process by which monozygotic twins do not fully separate but form CT is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to analyze diverse epidemiological aspects of CT, including the different variables listed in the Introduction Section of this issue of the Journal. The study was made possible using the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR) structure. This multicenter worldwide research includes the largest sample of CT ever studied. A total of 383 carefully reviewed sets of CT obtained from 26,138,837 births reported by 21 Clearinghouse Surveillance Programs (SP) were included in the analysis. Total prevalence was 1.47 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.32-1.62). Salient findings including an evident variation in prevalence among SPs: a marked variation in the type of pregnancy outcome, a similarity in the proportion of CT types among programs: a significant female predominance in CT: particularly of the thoracopagus type and a significant male predominance in parapagus and parasitic types: significant differences in prevalence by ethnicity and an apparent increasing prevalence trend in South American countries. No genetic, environmental or demographic significant associated factors were identified. Further work in epidemiology and molecular research is necessary to understand the etiology and pathogenesis involved in the development of this fascinating phenomenon of nature. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Feldkamp M.L.,University of Utah | Botto L.D.,University of Utah | Amar E.,Rhone Alps Registry of Birth Defects REMERA | Bakker M.K.,University of Groningen | And 18 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics | Year: 2011

Cloacal exstrophy presents as a complex abdominal wall defect thought to result from a mesodermal abnormality. Anatomically, its main components are Omphalocele, bladder Exstrophy and Imperforate anus. Other associated malformations include renal malformations and Spine defects (OEIS complex). Historically, the prevalence ranges from 1 in 200,000 to 400,000 births, with higher rates in females. Cloacal exstrophy is likely etiologically heterogeneous as suggested by its recurrence in families and occurrence in monozygotic twins. The defect has been described in infants with limb-body wall, with trisomy 18, and in one pregnancy exposed to Dilantin and diazepam. Due to its rarity, the use of a nonspecific diagnostic code for case identification, and lack of validation of the clinical findings, cloacal exstrophy remains an epidemiologic challenge. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence, associated anomalies and maternal characteristics among infants born with cloacal exstrophy. We used data from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research submitted from 18 birth defect surveillance programs representing 24 countries. Cases were clinically evaluated locally and reviewed centrally by two authors. Cases of persistent cloaca were excluded. A total of 186 cases of cloacal exstrophy were identified. Overall prevalence was 1 in 131,579 births: ranging from 1 in 44,444 births in Wales to 1 in 269,464 births in South America. Live birth prevalence was 1 in 184,195 births. Prevalence ratios did not vary by maternal age. Forty-two (22.6%) cases met the criteria for the OEIS complex, whereas 60 (32.3%) were classified as OEI and 18 (9.7%) as EIS (one with suspected VATER (0.5%)). Other findings included two cases with trisomy 13 (one without a karyotype confirmation), one with mosaic trisomy 12 (0.5%), one with mosaic 45,X (0.5%) and one classified as having amnion band sequence (0.5%). Twenty-seven (14.5%) infants had other anomalies unrelated to cloacal exstrophy. Cloacal exstrophy is a rare anomaly with variability in prevalence by geographic location. The proportion of cases classified as OEIS complex was lower in this study than previously reported. Among all cases, 54.8% were reported to have an omphalocele. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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