Bayamon, Puerto Rico
Bayamon, Puerto Rico

Caribbean University is a nonprofit private university system in Puerto Rico composed of four campuses. It was founded on February 28, 1969, as the Caribbean Junior College in the municipality of Bayamon. In 1978, it was renamed to Caribbean University College after being accredited by the Council on Higher Education of Puerto Rico. In 1990, after starting to offer graduate studies, it was renamed to Caribbean University.The university is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. Wikipedia.


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Kerridge B.T.,Columbia University | Tran P.,Caribbean University | Hasin D.S.,Columbia University | Hasin D.S.,New York State Department of Health
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2015

This study examined, for the first time, the association between intoxication at last sexual intercourse and unprotected sex separately among HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals. Data were derived from a nationally-representative survey of Uganda in 2011. Multivariable logistic regression analyses of the intoxication-unprotected sex association included adjustment for sociodemographic and behavioral covariates that were also examined as moderators of the association. Among HIV-positive individuals, intoxication was associated with unprotected sex, whereas among HIV-negative individuals, the intoxication-unprotected sex association was moderated by knowledge that condoms prevent HIV transmission. The odds of unprotected sex was 2.67 times greater among HIV-negative individuals who were unaware that condoms prevent HIV, an association not observed among those who possessed such knowledge. The results suggest that the intoxication-unprotected sex link be incorporated within Ugandan National HIV Prevention Strategies among HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals. HIV-negative individuals who are unaware that condoms prevent HIV should be targeted for interventions focusing on increasing HIV transmission knowledge especially on the role of condoms in preventing the disease. The latter interventions should also identify those sociocultural and political beliefs about condom use that may serve as barriers to consistent condom use. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Irwin M.,University of Utah | Greig A.,University of Utah | Tvrdik P.,University of Utah | Lucero M.T.,University of Utah | Lucero M.T.,Caribbean University
Journal of Neurophysiology | Year: 2015

Ca2+ activity in the CNS is critical for the establishment of developing neuronal circuitry prior to and during early sensory input. In developing olfactory bulb (OB), the neuromodulators that enhance network activity are largely unknown. Here we provide evidence that pituitary adenylate cyclaseactivating peptide (PACAP)-specific PAC1 receptors (PAC1Rs) expressed in postnatal day (P)2–P5 mouse OB are functional and enhance network activity as measured by increases in calcium in genetically identified granule cells (GCs). We used confocal Ca2+imaging of OB slices from Dlx2-tdTomato mice to visualize GABAergic GCs. To address whether the PACAP-induced Ca2+ oscillations were direct or indirect effects of PAC1R activation, we used antagonists for the GABA receptors (GABARs) and/or glutamate receptors (GluRs) in the presence and absence of PACAP. Combined block of GABARs and GluRs yielded a 66% decrease in the numbers of PACAP-responsive cells, suggesting that 34% of OB neurons are directly activated by PACAP. Similarly, immunocytochemistry using anti-PAC1 antibody showed that 34% of OB neurons express PAC1R. Blocking either GluRs or GABARs alone indirectly showed that PACAP stimulates release of both glutamate and GABA, which activate GCs. The appearance of PACAP-induced Ca2+ activity in immature GCs suggests a role for PACAP in GC maturation. To conclude, we find that PACAP has both direct and indirect effects on neonatal OB GABAergic cells and may enhance network activity by promoting glutamate and GABA release. Furthermore, the numbers of PACAP-responsive GCs significantly increased between P2 and P5, suggesting that PACAP-induced Ca2+ activity contributes to neonatal OB development. © 2015 the American Physiological Society.


Kung L.-H.,Loyola University Chicago | Glasgow J.,Loyola University Chicago | Ruszaj A.,Loyola University Chicago | Ruszaj A.,University of Michigan | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology | Year: 2010

Serotonin is thought to contribute to the syncopal-like response that develops during severe blood loss by inhibiting presympathetic neurons of the rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Here, we tested whether serotonin cells activated during hypotensive hemorrhage, i.e., express the protein product of the immediate early gene c-Fos, are critical for the normal sympathetic response to blood loss in unanesthetized rats. Serotonin-immunoreactive cells of the raphe obscurus and raphe magnus, parapyramidal cells of the B3 region, subependymal cells of the ventral parapyramidal region, and cells of the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray region were activated by hypotensive hemorrhage, but not by hypotension alone. In contrast to findings in anesthetized animals, lesion of hindbrain serotonergic cells sufficient to produce >80% loss of serotonin nerve terminal immunoreactivity in the RVLM accelerated the sympatholytic response to blood loss, attenuated recovery of sympathetic activity after termination of hemorrhage, and exaggerated metabolic acidosis. Hindbrain serotonin lesion also attenuated ventilatory and sympathetic responses to stimulation of central chemoreceptors but increased spontaneous arterial baroreflex sensitivity and decreased blood pressure variability. A more global neurotoxic lesion that also eliminated tryptophan hydroxylase- immunoreactive cells of the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray region had no further effect on the sympatholytic response to blood loss. Together, the data indicate that serotonin cells of the caudal hindbrain contribute to compensatory responses following blood loss that help maintain oxygenation of peripheral tissue in the unanesthetized rat. This effect may be related to facilitation of chemoreflex responses to acidosis. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.


Macpherson C.C.,Caribbean University
Bioethics | Year: 2013

Climate change harms health and damages and diminishes environmental resources. Gradually it will cause health systems to reduce services, standards of care, and opportunities to express patient autonomy. Prominent public health organizations are responding with preparedness, mitigation, and educational programs. The design and effectiveness of these programs, and of similar programs in other sectors, would be enhanced by greater understanding of the values and tradeoffs associated with activities and public policies that drive climate change. Bioethics could generate such understanding by exposing the harms and benefits in different cultural, socioeconomic, and geographic contexts, and through interdisciplinary risk assessments. Climate change is a bioethics problem because it harms everyone and involves health, values, and responsibilities. This article initiates dialog about the responsibility of bioethics to promote transparency and understanding of the social values and conflicts associated with climate change, and the actions and public policies that allow climate change to worsen. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Joseph T.D.,Caribbean University
Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law | Year: 2016

The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was passed to provide more affordable health coverage to Americans beginning in 2014. Modeled after the 2006 Massachusetts health care reform, the ACA includes an individual mandate, Medicaid expansion, and health exchanges through which middle-income individuals can purchase coverage from private insurance companies. However, while the ACA provisions exclude all undocumented and some documented immigrants, Massachusetts uses state and hospital funds to extend coverage to these groups. This article examines theACAreform using the Massachusetts reform as a comparative case study to outline how citizenship status influences individuals' coverage options under both policies. The article then briefly discusses other states that provide coverage to ACA-ineligible immigrants and the implications of uneven ACA implementation for immigrants and citizens nationwide. © 2016 by Duke University Press.


Rastogi D.,Yeshiva University | Canfield S.M.,Yeshiva University | Canfield S.M.,Columbia University | Andrade A.,Yeshiva University | And 5 more authors.
Chest | Year: 2012

Background: Obesity-associated asthma has been proposed to be a distinct entity, differing in immune pathogenesis from atopic asthma. Both obesity-mediated inflammation and increase in adiposity are potential mechanistic factors that are poorly defined among children. We hypothesized that pediatric obesity-associated asthma would be characterized by T helper (Th) 1, rather than the Th2 polarization associated with atopic asthma. Moreover, we speculated that Th1 biomarkers and anthropometric measures would correlate with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in obese asthmatic children. Methods: We recruited 120 children, with 30 in each of the four study groups: obese asthmatic children, nonobese asthmatic children, obese nonasthmatic children, and nonobese nonasthmatic children. All children underwent pulmonary function testing. Blood was collected for measurement of serum cytokines. T-cell responses to mitogen, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), or antigens tetanus toxoid or Dermatophagoides farinae were obtained by flow cytometric analysis of intracellular cytokine staining for interferon-γ (IFN-γ) (Th1) or IL-4 (Th2) within the CD4 population. Results: Obese asthmatic children had significantly higher Th1 responses to PMA (P < .01) and tetanus toxoid (P < .05) and lower Th2 responses to PMA (P < .05) and D farinae (P < .01) compared with nonobese asthmatic children. Th-cell patterns did not differ between obese asthmatic children and obese nonasthmatic children. Obese asthmatic children had lower FEV 1/FVC (P < .01) and residual volume/total lung capacity ratios (P < .005) compared with the other study groups, which negatively correlated with serum interferon-inducible protein 10 and IFN-γ levels, respectively. PFTs, however, did not correlate with BMI z score or waist to hip ratio. Conclusions: We found that pediatric obesity-associated asthma differed from atopic asthma and was characterized by Th1 polarization. The altered immune environment inversely correlated with PFTs in obese asthmatic children. © 2012 American College of Chest Physicians.


Voorbij A.M.W.Y.,University Utrecht | van Steenbeek F.G.,University Utrecht | Vos-Loohuis M.,University Utrecht | Martens E.E.C.P.,University Utrecht | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Dwarfism in German shepherd dogs is due to combined pituitary hormone deficiency of unknown genetic cause. We localized the recessively inherited defect by a genome wide approach to a region on chromosome 9 with a lod score of 9.8. The region contains LHX3, which codes for a transcription factor essential for pituitary development. Dwarfs have a deletion of one of six 7 bp repeats in intron 5 of LHX3, reducing the intron size to 68 bp. One dwarf was compound heterozygous for the deletion and an insertion of an asparagine residue in the DNA-binding homeodomain of LHX3, suggesting involvement of the gene in the disorder. An exon trapping assay indicated that the shortened intron is not spliced efficiently, probably because it is too small. We applied bisulfite conversion of cytosine to uracil in RNA followed by RT-PCR to analyze the splicing products. The aberrantly spliced RNA molecules resulted from either skipping of exon 5 or retention of intron 5. The same splicing defects were observed in cDNA derived from the pituitary of dwarfs. A survey of similarly mutated introns suggests that there is a minimal distance requirement between the splice donor and branch site of 50 nucleotides. In conclusion, a contraction of a DNA repeat in intron 5 of canine LHX3 leads to deficient splicing and is associated with pituitary dwarfism. © 2011 Voorbij et al.


Afrasiabi K.,University of California at Irvine | Melekh-Shalom J.,Caribbean University
OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

The interplay of the second law of thermodynamics with the normal state and the methodology needed for the measurement of free energy of normal and malignant cells and its practical implications has not been clearly addressed in current literature. The second law of thermodynamics is one of the most fundamental laws governing the known universe at all levels. A normal cell has an exceptional ability to minimize the speed of rise in entropy to saturation of the limits of the second law. By virtue of this law, any normal resting cell is at a maximum allowable free energy. In this regard mitosis could be viewed as an attempt to maximize the lowered cellular free energy. Here we present the result of our first series of measurements, which show a significant measurable difference between the free energy of normal and malignant cells using an Olympus 510 Argon laser to calculate a diffusion correlation as well as direct visualization of motion of malignant and normal cells cultured overnight in collagen mesh. We found a significantly higher vibratory motion of the normal cells after correction for confounding factors. We also propose a new way to increase the free energy of the malignant cell to match that of its normal counterpart. This could offer hope for cure by conversion of distorted energetics of the malignant cell. © 2013 Science Publication.


Ghanbari H.,University of Michigan | Jani R.,University of Michigan | Hussain-Amin A.,Caribbean University | Al-Assad W.,University of Michigan | And 9 more authors.
Heart Rhythm | Year: 2016

Background Adenosine can reveal dormant pulmonary vein (PV) conduction after PV isolation (PVI) in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the impact of elimination of adenosine-provoked dormant PV conduction after PVI has not been formally evaluated. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether ablation of PV reconnections unmasked by adenosine improves outcomes. Methods Patients with paroxysmal AF (n = 129) were randomized to receive either adenosine (n = 61) or no adenosine (n = 68) after PVI. Dormant conduction revealed by adenosine after PVI was ablated until all adenosine-mediated reconnections were eliminated. Thereafter, both groups received isoproterenol. Results Acute reconnection was seen in 23 patients (37%) in the adenosine group. There was a significant difference between the number of PVs reconnected if patients were given adenosine >60 minutes after initial PVI compared to those who received adenosine <60 minutes after initial PVI (3/32 [9.4%] vs 24/32 [75%], P <.0001). Patients who did not receive adenosine had more PV reconnections after isoproterenol infusion compared to patients in the adenosine group (17/68 [25.0%] vs 5/61 [8.2%], P =.018). There was no difference in the rate of AF recurrence in patients who received adenosine (24/61 [39%]) compared to control patients (23/68 [34%], log-rank P =.83). Conclusion Adenosine can reveal dormant conduction in more than one-third of patients with paroxysmal AF undergoing PVI. However, adenosine administration, and additional ablation of the resultant connections, does not improve long-term outcomes compared to a protocol that includes isoproterenol infusion. © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 70.00K | Year: 2010

International Conference on Alternative Energy (ICAE); Caribbean University proposes organizing the first International Conference on Alternative Energy (ICAE) in San Juan, Puerto Rico on July 15-16, 2010. By supporting research and development in alternative energy, the nation can potentially reduce its dependence on foreign oil and create employment opportunities. In order to support these efforts, the ICAE will bring together leaders in the field from around the globe to share original concepts, research findings and create collaborations. The gathering of leading academics, researchers and government officials from the countries in the Western hemisphere, Europe and Asia will address important and pressing alternative energy topics in the areas of State-of-the-Art Technology, Public Policy, Research and Economics with a particular focus on the participation of students, women and minorities in the conference and field. Over the course of two days, these leaders will advance knowledge and understanding across the field by engaging in plenary sessions, technical sessions and round table discussions. In addition, there will be several keynote speakers as well as optional academic and industrial tours designed to showcase the extensive industrial infrastructure of Puerto Rico and research activities and facilities at local universities. Located in Puerto Rico, Caribbean University is well qualified to develop and host the conference because of its location, prior work in the field of engineering education and alternative energy and access to the resources necessary for the conference. Furthermore, the organizing committee has experience in developing similar events such as the Segunda Cumbre de Expertos: Telecomunicaciones en Puerto Rico, a telecommunications conference held in November 2007.

Researching and developing alternative energy is a high priority for the nation. Advances in alternative energy are of benefit to society because they can lead to the creation of jobs and also a reduction in pollution and dependence on other nations for oil. Therefore, the broader impacts of the conference include both the advances and discoveries that will be shared at the conference as well as the distribution of results after the conference and ultimately the potential benefits to society of alternative energy advancements. ICAE will also provide opportunities and support for commercialization and entrepreneurial endeavors. This will be done through special technology commercialization panels during the ICAE conference. The conference will provide opportunities for participants to meet, network, exchange information and initiate partnerships. They will also learn about the mechanics and logistics of working internationally. There will be broad participation specifically targeting students, women and minorities from throughout the Caribbean, the Americas, Europe and Asia with a focus on underrepresented groups. For example, student scholarships will be provided to promote teaching, training, and learning.

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