Caribbean Primate Research CenterUniversity of Puerto Rico Medical science CampusSan Juan

San Juan, Puerto Rico

Caribbean Primate Research CenterUniversity of Puerto Rico Medical science CampusSan Juan

San Juan, Puerto Rico
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Kessler M.J.,Office Of Laboratory Animal Resourcesrobert rd Health Science Centerwest Virginia Universitymorgantown | Wang Q.,Texas A&M University | Cerroni A.M.,Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Research InstituteMount Sinai Hospital Joseph and Wolf Lebovic Health ComplexToronto | Grynpas M.D.,Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Research InstituteMount Sinai Hospital Joseph and Wolf Lebovic Health ComplexToronto | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2015

While osteopenia (OPE) and osteoporosis (OPO) have been studied in various species of aging nonhuman primates and extensively in ovariectomized rhesus and cynomolgus macaques, there is virtually no information on the effects of castration on the skeleton of male nonhuman primates. Most information on castrated male primates comes from a few studies on the skeletons of eunuchs. This report used a subset of the Caribbean Primate Research Center's (CPRC) Cayo Santiago (CS) rhesus macaque skeletal collection to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the bone mineral density (BMD) of castrated and age-matched intact males and, thereby, determine the long-term effects of castration (orchidectomy) on bone. Lumbar vertebrae, femora, and crania were evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA) and digital radiography augmented, when fresh tissues were available, with autoradiography and histology. Results confirmed physical examinations of long bones that castration causes changes in the skeleton of male rhesus macaques similar to those found in eunuchs, including OPE and OPO of the vertebrae and femora, thinning of the skull, and vertebral fractures and kyphosis of the spine more severe than that caused by normal aging alone. Also like eunuchs, some castrated CS male rhesus monkeys had a longer life span than intact males or females. Based on these results and the effects of castration on other tissues and organs of eunuchs, on behavior, hormone profiles and possibly on cognition and visual perception of human and nonhuman primates, and other mammals, castrated male rhesus macaques should be used with caution for laboratory studies and should be considered a separate category from intact males. Despite these caveats, the castrated male rhesus macaque should make an excellent animal model in which to test hormone replacement therapies for boys and men orchidectomized for testicular and prostate cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Wang Q.,Health Science University | Turnquist J.E.,Caribbean Primate Research CenterUniversity of Puerto Rico Medical science CampusSan Juan | Turnquist J.E.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan | Kessler M.J.,Caribbean Primate Research CenterUniversity of Puerto Rico Medical science CampusSan Juan | Kessler M.J.,Office Of Laboratory Animal Resourcesrobert rd Health Science Centerwest Virginia Universitymorgantown
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2015

This article describes the dental eruption patterns, dentition, and dental wear, including tooth loss and breakage, of the free-ranging population of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago (CS), Puerto Rico, ranging from 24hr to 25 years old. Of the 694 monkeys on the island in the year 1985, 688 (99.1%; 366 males, 322 females) were captured and the dentition of 685 subjects (98.7% of the total population; 366 males, 319 females) was examined. Animals ranged in age from less than 24hr to 331 months (27.58 years), encompassing the entire life span of the CS macaques. Results demonstrated that the first deciduous teeth appeared as early as the third day of life and that the sequence of dental eruption was comparable to the pattern observed in laboratory rhesus. However, there were slight differences in the age of eruption of individual teeth. For example, the canines and third molars erupted about a year later in the CS macaques compared to some laboratory rhesus. Overall, CS rhesus had good oral health and dental condition although tooth wear, loss, and breakage were common in aged animals, especially in males. This report, combined with earlier studies on morphological characteristics and skeletal remains of the CS macaques, provides the basis for further studies on the biology, genetics, life history, and effects of the environment on rhesus monkeys. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Kessler M.J.,Office Of Laboratory Animal Resourcesrobert rd Health Science Centerwest Virginia Universitymorgantown | Rawlins R.G.,Caribbean Primate Research CenterUniversity of Puerto Rico Medical science CampusSan Juan
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2015

This article presents a pictorial history of the free-ranging colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, in commemoration of the 75th anniversary of its establishment by Clarence R. Carpenter in December 1938. It is based on a presentation made by the authors at the symposium, Cayo Santiago: 75 Years of Leadership in Translational Research, held at the 36th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists in San Juan, Puerto Rico, on 20 June 2013. Am. J. Primatol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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