Caribbean Maritime Institute

Kingston, Jamaica

Caribbean Maritime Institute

Kingston, Jamaica

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Ajagunna I.,Caribbean Maritime Institute | Pinnock F.,Caribbean Maritime Institute | Amode T.M.,Caribbean Maritime Institute
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes | Year: 2017

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of the articles included in this theme issue. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews the contributions in this theme issue to one key question: is there a symbiotic relationship between tourism development and logistic services in the Caribbean? Findings: Even though the papers in this theme issue have focused on examining different interconnections between tourism and other activities, all suggest that tourism development and logistics services are symbiotically related. Each of the contributions has suggested that strategies to improve logistics activities will enhance the development and growth of the tourism industry. Originality/value: The conclusion presented draws on the analysis of the theme. The conclusion also presents a review of all the papers submitted to the theme issue. © 2017, © Emerald Publishing Limited.


Anderson K.R.,Caribbean Maritime Institute
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes | Year: 2017

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of agritourism as a development model which enables the diversification of agriculture and targets the utilization of endogenous approaches in an effective manner to distribute benefits for the majority of the community. The logistics hub is a channel by which sustainability of this model can be achieved. Methodology: This explorative study used survey methodology to gather data from a cross-section of stakeholders: an influential group consisting of 20 directors and senior directors, and 146 farmers, extension and assistant extension officers from rural agriculture development agency (RADA). The study was explored in terms of six proposed sustainability indicators as demonstrated by the Mandel Model for sustainable rural poultry farming. Findings: The presence of the logistics hub made possible environmentally friendly infrastructural development, quality control of agritourism services, availability of financial resources and improved publicity and promotion of services. Arising from this, economics, socio-cultural and environmental benefits are likely to be achieved. Research limitations/implications: Although the research has achieved its aims, there are some limitations. First, this research was conducted in seven of the fourteen parishes of Jamaica. Second, a broader-based longitudinal study is best suited to research of this nature. Practical implications: Participating rural communities are likely to experience increased economic activity and development and ultimately a better standard of living. This must be seen in the context of the need for citizens in rural Jamaica to achieve cultural and educational change. Social implications: This study has implications for the development and maintenance of public services and for local customs and cultures. Originality/value: It is estimated that more than 100,000 Jamaicans could improve their standard of living and ultimately this would benefit all Jamaicans. © 2017, © Emerald Publishing Limited.


Amonde T.M.,Caribbean Maritime Institute | Ajagunna I.,Caribbean Maritime Institute | Iyare N.F.,Kingston University
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes | Year: 2017

Purpose: Growth of the tourism sector and the relative importance of the last mile have been studied in independent literature, but theorists formally linking the two phenomena are limited. This paper aims to develop a theoretical framework for the understanding of the relationships between the last mile concept and the growth of the tourism sector. Design/methodology/approach: Using 16 Caribbean countries’ tourism destinations, the study designs the last mile response to tourists’ demand based on the following categories: homogenous high-end tourists; homogenous low-end tourists; non-homogenous high-end tourists; non-homogenous low-end tourists; homogenous and non-homogenous high-end tourists; and homogenous and non-homogeneous low-end tourists. Destination networks were ranked relative to each other in terms of six different performance dimensions. A ranking of 1 indicates the best performance along a given dimension and the relative performance worsens, as the ranking gets higher. Findings: First, it is the case that the Caribbean has a tourism environment with three types of destinations differentiated by their last mile standard levels (high standard LML, low standard LML and a combination of high and low standard LML). Second, tourists can choose from destinations that have high, low and combination of high and low last mile standard levels. Third, the relative number of tourists and relative profit of destination will depend on the last mile level. Fourth, while empirical evidence of the integration strategies for market differentiation is scarce, this paper points to the effect of cooperation on marketing destinations or integration strategies for marketing destinations. Originality/value: The grouping of countries into high standard LML, low standard LML and a combination of high and low standard LML represents an advance on the traditional grouping based on proximity, colonial affiliation, language and cultural association. Identifying destination networks that are best suited for a variety of tourists, investors and marketers is of great value to regional tourism planners. © 2017, © Emerald Publishing Limited.


Pinnock F.,Caribbean Maritime Institute | Ajagunna I.,Caribbean Maritime Institute | Casanova S.,Cluster GAT CARAIBES Logistics and Transport
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes | Year: 2017

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is an assessment of logistics services and tourism infrastructure in the Caribbean. The objective is to examine the efficiency and competitiveness of the logistics and tourism environment in the region. Design/methodology/approach: Given the low levels of implementation of logistics services in Barbados and Jamaica, this study is exploratory, and it is hoped that future studies can build on this assessment of Barbados and Jamaica, and by extension the Caribbean. Findings: Governments across the Caribbean need to recognize that the development of an effective logistics industry rests with improved technology, a proper legislative framework, the development of competent human resources and modern infrastructure development. Research limitations/implications: The study was limited to Barbados and Jamaica, and so it is not representative of the rest of the Caribbean, as economies like Trinidad and Tobago, the Bahamas and the Dominican Republic have stronger trans-shipment and cruise tourism activities. Practical implications: With the low pace of logistics development in the Caribbean, the demand for logistic services, which involve planning, managing and executing the movement of goods and information within global supply chains, will continue to be largely by firms’ desire to outsource some or all logistics-related activities to specialists. Social implications: The need to plan for the development of a competent and certified pool of human resources to support the development of a logistics and tourism industry is critical. This therefore requires the development of specialized skills, knowledge and the competence of a flexible and agile workforce. Originality/value: The focus on Barbados and Jamaica provide an adequate picture of the logistics markets and regulatory frameworks in different contexts of the Caribbean, including an economy directly connected with the global marketplace with a relatively diversified product structure, and another less extensively connected and diversified product structure. © 2017, © Emerald Publishing Limited.


Ajagunna I.A.,Caribbean Maritime Institute | Crick A.P.,University of the West Indies
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes | Year: 2014

Purpose: This conceptual paper aims to examine how the concept of host and guest interaction could help remedy the socio-economic impacts as created by tourism in Jamaica. The paper identifies that tourism development in Jamaica has created a range of negative social impacts, which include changes in attitude, aspirations and lifestyles of young people, who may come from poor backgrounds but are increasingly exposed to the consumerist lifestyles of wealthy visitors and the so-called role models in the society, "the Dons". Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative approach was employed as the focus for this study. The survey of residents, and tourists in Ocho Rios and Negril in Jamaica were primary sources of data for this paper. Findings: The tourism industry in Jamaica has seen a great diversification in recent years. The industry now ranges from conventional tourism (sun, sand, sea and sex) to cruise tourism, moderate community based tourism, heritage and cultural tourism, and more recently nature-tourism. However, social factors remain a deterrent. It is apparent that relying on the concept and principles of host and guest interaction presents a strategic option for success and if one is to understand the impact of tourism on the residents, the inter-action between the various elements in the system must be understood. Originality/value: The attitudes of Jamaicans are important in determining the level of host and guest interaction and the level of success in the industry. Attitude is the fulcrum from which quality service is delivered; as such, the people must be in tune with the industry at all levels in order to achieve a sustainable tourism industry. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Clayton A.H.,University of the West Indies | Ajagunna I.A.,Caribbean Maritime Institute | Pinnock F.H.,Caribbean Maritime Institute
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes | Year: 2014

Purpose: As the world is being rapidly reshaped by the accelerating pace of scientific and technological advance, demographic trends, the rise of new centres of global manufacturing, surging demand for resources, rapid shifts in the pattern of environmental impacts, changes in the nature of risk, political and economic influence, competition and conflict, and the geopolitical balance of power, and potential global threats such as climate change, this conceptual paper aims to examine what impact some of these changes may have on developing nations that are highly dependent on the tourism sector, and what implications this may have for the tourism industry in general. Design/methodology/approach: The paper seeks to examine what impact what some of these changes may have on developing nations that are highly dependent on the tourism sector, and what implications this may have for the tourism industry in general. Findings: Based on the pattern of growth and emerging new world, it appears that the tourism industry will undergo a significant transformation over the next several decades as a result of current social, economic, technological and environmental changes, which raises important questions as to how the small nations can plan and prepare for these developments. Practical implications: While we are living in turbulent times, and it seems likely that times of even more profound change lie ahead, there are ways in which even the smallest and poorest developing countries can increase their resilience, support their most important economic sectors, which in many cases now is their tourism industry, and protect their people. One of the most important steps is policy integration, which would allow multiple objectives to be met as efficiently and economically as possible. Originality/value: A number of small, developing nations are now heavily dependent on the tourism industry. This paper suggests that integrated planning could help in this regard by assisting the small developing nations to solve a number of impediments at the same time, and thereby increasing their resilience. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Clayton A.H.,University of the West Indies | Ajagunna I.A.,Caribbean Maritime Institute | Pinnock F.H.,Caribbean Maritime Institute
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes | Year: 2014

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to critically review the contributions made by the articles in this theme issue with reference to the literature and by examining the linkages between global economic change and the sustainable development efforts of tourism-dependent economies. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews the theme issue's contribution to four key questions: What are the implications of global economic transformation for tourism? Where will the tourists come from in future? Where will they go? What are the implications for tourism-dependent economies? Findings: The paper concludes that success in tourism can only be determined by measuring the long-term benefits to the investors and other stakeholders. As such, tourism businesses cannot be sustained indefinitely unless the government, the investors and other stakeholders are broadly satisfied with the benefits derived. Research limitations/implications: The paper observes that small, tourism-dependent economies need good governance, shrewd management and, in some cases, the determination to leave behind the failed politics of patronage and corruption that have inflicted so much harm in the past. Originality/value: This article discusses the practical implications and action points arising in response to the question: How might small developing nations achieve long-term sustainable development in a world where the balance of economic output and influence is shifting so rapidly to the emerging industrial powers? © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Pinnock F.H.,Caribbean Maritime Institute
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes | Year: 2014

Purpose: In the face of newly industrialised nations, there is the tendency that there will be a shift or redirect of tourists from old tourism destinations to the newly industrialised ones. While there has been a consistent growth in cruising to the Caribbean, the question is whether the growth in cruise ship calls and increase in cruise passenger arrivals to the Caribbean translate into greater development for the region's stakeholders or whether this just creates increased profits for the cruise lines, and whether there will be a shift from the Caribbean to the newly industrialised nation in years to come. This paper seeks to address these issues. Design/methodology/approach: This research employed mixed methods approach to answer the research question. The nature of the question and data necessary to answer the question led to the choice of qualitative and quantitative techniques. Findings: The findings from this research will, hopefully, serve as a guide for Caribbean nations to develop a better strategy to cope with the cruise tourism industry; an approach based more along the lines of inter-island collaboration as opposed to competition. Research limitations/implications: Lack of ample data on cruise tourism in the Caribbean was one of the limitations of the study. Another drawback involved the high level of secrecy which surrounds the industry and the unwillingness of cruise lines and their associates to provide access to operational data, which they regard as confidential. Originality/value: The Caribbean, particularly Caribbean governments, will benefit from a greater understanding of the power relations among the cruise tourism stakeholder chain and the profile of costs and benefits associated with the industry. Over the years, the Caribbean has relied solely on the economic impact surveys produced by Florida Caribbean Cruise Association (FCCA) and Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA), both of whom represent the cruise lines, in order to make projections and development plans for the industry. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Ajagunna I.,Caribbean Maritime Institute
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes | Year: 2014

Purpose: This paper aims to examine the position of tourism in tourism dependent countries in light of newly industrialized countries and how trends in the industry impact these developing tourism dependent nations. International tourism, for example, is now a technologically advanced activity in which some developing countries are lagging behind. These developing countries are challenged in adapting to compatible and new technology, financing, staff training and the relevant to the future of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: The study employed a qualitative research methodology using both primary and secondary data drawn from a study conducted on the South Coast of Jamaica with supporting literature from a global perspective. Findings: Moves by major players in the international tourism industry to increase their influence and dominance of global markets may reduce consumer choice thereby creating a shift for tourism from old tourism dependent developing nations to newly industrialized countries of the world. This would mean that the old tourism dependent nations need to devise a new way of diversifying their tourism products to attract elite markets seeking clean and un-spoilt environments and destinations. Originality/value: This paper is part of a PhD work, which has been published in a book. The key issues raised in the paper are still current and the challenges present now need government and policy makers' attention. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Ajagunna I.,Caribbean Maritime Institute | Pinnock F.,Caribbean Maritime Institute | Kerr R.,Sun Venture Tours Ltd
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes | Year: 2014

Purpose: This paper aims to examine how "wilderness tourism" is being successfully used to promote tourism development in the economically depressed community of Bangor Ridge in Jamaica. Through this promotion, its sponsor, Sun Venture Tours, has been able to create employment for local residents and in so doing, contribute to community development and poverty alleviation. The company has also been able to demonstrate that local entrepreneurs have the capacity to address issues in their communities with little or no reliance on government. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a qualitative research methodology using both primary and secondary data. The study focuses specifically on Bangor Ridge in Jamaica with Costa Rica and Belize used as comparators. Findings: This paper concludes that the exclusion of heritage assets from the government's development strategies for tourism in Jamaica has resulted in economic and social stagnation and a decline in economic opportunities for rural communities on the island where unemployment and poverty are rife. It argues that there is a strong case for consultation among all stakeholders as to the value of the country's natural assets and the future of tourism in Jamaica. The paper observes that tourism cannot be sustained unless Jamaica's natural assets are preserved and carefully utilized. Originality/value: This paper explores topical issues and provides a case study that clearly illustrates how government could redirect its interest in terms of support to local communities whose assets form the basis for tourism products on the island. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

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