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McConney P.,The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus | Cox S.-A.,Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology CIMH | Parsram K.,The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus
Regional Environmental Change | Year: 2015

Fisheries resources are of particular importance to the small island developing states of the Eastern Caribbean. There is an increasing demand for seafood to address food security and nutrition, to support coastal livelihoods and to contribute to sustainable development. The Caribbean Community recently developed a Regional Food and Nutrition Security Policy and a Common Fisheries Policy. These instruments, however, only make passing mention of fisheries and food security, respectively. There is little evidence of food security being integrated into fisheries governance. Yet, recent research has shown that resilience perspectives on fisheries governance in the Eastern Caribbean can be useful for obtaining ecosystem services, such as those that relate to food security, from social–ecological systems. This resilience takes into account global and regional environmental change, multiple levels of governance and degrees of adaptive capacity, matching the scales of social and ecological processes and managing social networks in the institutional arrangements for resource use and conservation. Building food security and resilience into fisheries governance requires the development of adaptive capacity, especially through social networks, and with an emphasis on policies that enable fisherfolk self-organisation. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Hall T.C.,University of the West Indies | Sealy A.M.,Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology CIMH | Stephenson T.S.,University of the West Indies | Kusunoki S.,Meteorological Research Institute MRI | And 3 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2013

Present-day (1979-2003) and future (2075-2099) simulations of mean and extreme rainfall and temperature are examined using data from the Meteorological Research Institute super-high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model. Analyses are performed over the 20-km model grid for (1) a main Caribbean basin, (2) sub-regional zones, and (3) specific Caribbean islands. Though the model's topography underestimates heights over the eastern Caribbean, it captures well the present-day spatial and temporal variations of seasonal and annual climates. Temperature underestimations range from 0.1 °C to 2 °C with respect to the Japanese Reanalysis and the Climatic Research Unit datasets. The model also captures fairly well sub-regional scale variations in the rainfall climatology. End-of-century projections under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change SRES A1B scenario indicate declines in rainfall amounts by 10-20 % for most of the Caribbean during the early (May-July) and late (August-October) rainy seasons relative to the 1979-2003 baselines. The early dry season (November-January) is also projected to get wetter in the far north and south Caribbean by approximately 10 %. The model also projects a warming of 2-3 °C over the Caribbean region. Analysis of future climate extremes indicate a 5-10 % decrease in the simple daily precipitation intensity but no significant change in the number of consecutive dry days for Cuba, Jamaica, southern Bahamas, and Haiti. There is also indication that the number of hot days and nights will significantly increase over the main Caribbean basin. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Wien.

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