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A Lote, Peru

Ortiz O.,International Potato Center | Orrego R.,International Potato Center | Pradel W.,International Potato Center | Gildemacher P.,International Potato Center | And 12 more authors.
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability | Year: 2011

Participatory research (PR) has been presented as an alternative to develop sustainable agricultural technologies more responsive to farmer needs. However, the institutionalization of PR methods is influenced by stakeholders' perceptions about incentives and disincentives. The study was conducted by gathering and analysing information from farmers, facilitators and institutional representatives involved in conducting potato-related PR in Bolivia, Ethiopia, Peru and Uganda between 2005 and 2007. Results indicate that at the farmer level the most important incentives are related to the benefits they can acquire (improving human and social capital, which is essential for more sustainable results). At the facilitator level, operational and organizational factors represent incentives, for example, perception of additional benefits, existing capabilities and skills, and access to logistic support. Some factors also represent disincentives such response to different types of demands, and instability of jobs within institutions. At the organization level, both financial and operational factors represent incentives or disincentives, such as the cost of PR methods, availability of skillful human resources, quality of technologies generated and the sustainability of financial support. These factors at both individual and organizational level need to be taken into consideration by organizations aiming at scaling up and out-of-PR methods and derived technologies in a sustainable way. © 2011 Earthscan. Source

Ortiz O.,International Potato Center | Orrego R.,International Potato Center | Pradel W.,International Potato Center | Gildemacher P.,International Potato Center | And 12 more authors.
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2013

In the last 50. years, theoretical and practical approaches to promoting agricultural innovations have been evolving. Initial innovation diffusion theories led to a linear, top-down approach of technology transfer. However, changes occurred in the 1970s and 1980s, such as the economic structural adjustment which caused a dramatic decrease in governmental agricultural research and extension services in several developing countries. Simultaneously a number of new stakeholders (NGOs, private companies, farmer organizations, local governments, etc.) started to contribute to agricultural innovations more actively in the 1990s and 2000s. As the changes occurred, scholars began proposing new theories, such as the innovation systems approach, to explain how multiple stakeholders interact, exchange information, generate knowledge and develop innovations for solving problems. The paper describes the results of a rapid appraisal of potato innovation systems in Bolivia, Ethiopia, Peru and Uganda. The method was useful for identifying components and limitations in the system at pilot sites. Results indicate that the systems had similar types of components, namely national and local government organizations, NGOs, private companies, farmer organizations and media; another common feature was the limited interaction among organizational components, which reduced farmer access to information, technologies, organizations, markets and services. However, the role of organizational components was different across countries. Farmer organizations played a limited role at the pilot sites in these countries, except in Bolivia. The role of national governments was also limited in Bolivia and Peru, but played a major role in Ethiopia and Uganda at the moment of the study. Local governments were starting to play an important role in the four sites. NGOs played an active role in most countries, and the private companies in charge of input supply were more active in Bolivia and Peru. Media (radio) were present, but they were not contributing significantly to disseminating information for innovation. The International Potato Center (CIP) was present in all the systems, playing a role of innovation brokerage. Results indicate that different types of intervention would be needed for each country to strengthen the roles that components were already playing, but should look for improving interactions among components. In Ethiopia, strengthening innovation capacity of potato-related government organizations would be desirable to start the process, but in Bolivia, Peru and Uganda, enhancing interactions and coordination among government organizations, NGOs, private companies and farmer organizations would be needed, for example, to improve farmer access to quality planting material and markets. The role of farmer organizations and the private companies in charge of input supply need to be strengthened in the potato innovation systems in all places. The rapid appraisal of potato innovation systems has shown to be a method with potential to start understanding the complexity of the innovation systems and identify potential entry points for interventions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Frey H.,University of Zurich | Huggel C.,University of Zurich | Buhler Y.,WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF | Buis D.,University of Zurich | And 8 more authors.
Landslides | Year: 2016

The town of Santa Teresa (Cusco Region, Peru) has been affected by several large debris-flow events in the recent past, which destroyed parts of the town and resulted in a resettlement of the municipality. Here, we present a risk analysis and a risk management strategy for debris-flows and glacier lake outbursts in the Sacsara catchment. Data scarcity and limited understanding of both physical and social processes impede a full quantitative risk assessment. Therefore, a bottom-up approach is chosen in order to establish an integrated risk management strategy that is robust against uncertainties in the risk analysis. With the Rapid Mass Movement Simulation (RAMMS) model, a reconstruction of a major event from 1998 in the Sacsara catchment is calculated, including a sensitivity analysis for various model parameters. Based on the simulation results, potential future debris-flows scenarios of different magnitudes, including outbursts of two glacier lakes, are modeled for assessing the hazard. For the local communities in the catchment, the hazard assessment is complemented by the analysis of high-resolution satellite imagery and fieldwork. Physical, social, economic, and institutional vulnerability are considered for the vulnerability assessment, and risk is eventually evaluated by crossing the local hazard maps with the vulnerability. Based on this risk analysis, a risk management strategy is developed, consisting of three complementing elements: (i) standardized risk sheets for the communities; (ii) activities with the local population and authorities to increase social and institutional preparedness; and (iii) a simple Early Warning System. By combining scientific, technical, and social aspects, this work is an example of a framework for an integrated risk management strategy in a data scarce, remote mountain catchment in a developing country. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

Hubbard B.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Sarisky J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Gelting R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Baffigo V.,CARE Peru | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | Year: 2011

In September 2001, Cooperative Assistance and Relief Everywhere, Peru Country Office (CARE Peru), obtained funding from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to implement community-supported, condominial water and sanitation interventions in Manuel Cardozo Dávila, a settlement in Iquitos, Peru. With technical support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), CARE Peru's Urban Environmental Health Models (Modelos Urbanos de Salud Ambiental [MUSA]) project built on previous work from implementing the Protocol for Assessing Community Excellence in Environmental Health in this same community. The project led to the municipal water supply distribution system being extended 1.3 kilometers into the Southern zone of Iquitos, where it connected to the condominial water system. Altogether, 1030 households were connected to the water supply system after the installation of a condominial water and sewerage system in Cardozo. Diarrheal disease decreased by 37% for children less than 5 years of age from 2003 to 2004. This paper illustrates the strategy used by CARE Peru in conjunction with the Cardozo community to assure that the local demand for improved water and sanitation was met. © 2011. Source

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