Emergency obstetric care in Mali: Catastrophic spending and its impoverishing effects on households [Atención obstétrica de urgencia en Malí: Gastos catastróficos y sus efectos empobrecedores en los hogares]
Sissoko K.,CARE International |
Traore M.,University Of Bamako |
Dumont A.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2013
Objective To investigate the frequency of catastrophic expenditures for emergency obstetric care, explore its risk factors, and assess the effect of these expenditures on households in the Kayes region, Mali. Methods Data on 484 obstetric emergencies (242 deaths and 242 near-misses) were collected in 2008-2011. Catastrophic expenditure for emergency obstetric care was assessed at different thresholds and its associated factors were explored through logistic regression. A survey was subsequently administered in a nested sample of 56 households to determine how the catastrophic expenditure had affected them. Findings Despite the fee exemption policy for Caesareans and the maternity referral-system, designed to reduce the financial burden of emergency obstetric care, average expenses were 152 United States dollars (equivalent to 71 535 Communauté Financière Africaine francs) and 20.7 to 53.5% of households incurred catastrophic expenditures. High expenditure for emergency obstetric care forced 44.6% of the households to reduce their food consumption and 23.2% were still indebted 10 months to two and a half years later. Living in remote rural areas was associated with the risk of catastrophic spending, which shows the referral system's inability to eliminate financial obstacles for remote households. Women who underwent Caesareans continued to incur catastrophic expenses, especially when prescribed drugs not included in the government-provided Caesarean kits. Conclusion The poor accessibility and affordability of emergency obstetric care has consequences beyond maternal deaths. Providing drugs free of charge and moving to a more sustainable, nationally-funded referral system would reduce catastrophic expenses for households during obstetric emergencies.
Bartel D.,CARE International |
Rubardt M.,CARE International
Global Public Health | Year: 2012
Using samples of reproductive aged men and women from rural Ethiopia and Kenya, this study examines the associations between two scales measuring balances of power and equitable attitudes within relationships and modern contraceptive use. The scales are developed from the Sexual and Reproductive Power Scale (SRPS) and Gender Equitable Male (GEM) scale, which were originally developed to measure relationship power (SRPS) among women and gender equitable attitudes (GEM) among men. With the exception of Ethiopian women, a higher score on the balance of power scale was associated with significantly higher odds of reporting modern contraceptive use. For men and women in both countries, a higher score on the equitable attitudes scale was associated with significantly higher odds of reporting modern contraceptive use. However, only the highest categories of the scales are associated with contraceptive use, suggesting a threshold effect in the relationships between power, equity and contraceptive use. The results presented here demonstrate how elements of the GEM and SRPS scales can be used to create scales measuring balances of power and equitable attitudes within relationships that are associated with self-reporting of modern contraceptive use in two resource-poor settings. However, further work with larger sample sizes is needed to confirm these findings, and to examine the extent to which these scales can be applied to other social and cultural contexts. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.
News Article | November 16, 2016
Child Protection Non-Profit Seeks Support to Provide Food, Shelter & Hope to Young Victims of Hurricane Matthew in Haiti BOSTON, MA--(Marketwired - November 16, 2016) - Little Footprints Big Steps (LFBS), a registered nonprofit organization protecting vulnerable children in Haiti, is raising funds to rescue and rebuild the lives of children in Haiti after the extreme devastation of Hurricane Matthew. Little Footprints, Big Steps (LFBS) was founded to rescue children in Haiti from abuse, slavery, homelessness and severe neglect. They have reunited families in over 23 different communities across Haiti. Through outreach programs and local collaborations, LFBS ensures shelter, food, medical care, education and opportunities for self-sufficiency and dignity are a reality. However, since Hurricane Matthew hit Haiti, LFBS has been focused on disaster relief and recovery -- and the work has just begun. "In one night, everything was destroyed in Haiti," said Little Footprints, Big Steps Co-Founder Morgan Wienberg. "The long term damage and death toll from Hurricane Matthew in Haiti will be much greater than that of the 2010 earthquake due to complete destruction of agricultural crops. Entire communities have been destroyed. Many communities have only one or two homes left standing. Families are living on the plot where their homes used to be, completely exposed. Children with broken limbs and open wounds have been left without any treatment." The LFBS team has already helped hundreds of Haitian children and their families in need with emergency food and medical care. With needed funds they will also begin immediately investing in these children's long-term livelihoods, helping them to restore gardens and empower the Haitian families to be active participants in rebuilding their own lives after Hurricane Matthew destroyed them. LFBS will provide the families with the means to improve their own conditions and help them cope with the trauma, giving them hope so that they can move forward. LFBS will also monitor and support orphanages to ensure children in orphanages are cared for as well as hire doctors to execute mobile clinics. "We need financial support to rebuild these young lives. We have so many kids that are wounded and incredibly traumatized. They have lost all sense of normalcy, including their schools that were destroyed. Some of the children that LFBS supports literally carried their school books with them while they were fleeing their homes in the middle of the hurricane. That is how greatly they value their education and they need to return to school as quickly as possible. This is critical in offering them normalcy to rebuild their lives and have hope moving forward," said Morgan. Little Footprints, Big Steps (LFBS) is a 501c3 non-profit organization reuniting vulnerable Haitian children with their families and provides shelter, food and education through strategic projects to build sustainable lives, one small footstep at a time. Morgan Wienberg co-founded LFBS when she was just 18-years old after witnessing children in a Haitian orphanage that were neglected, beaten, and starved. Morgan discovered that the children had been sent to the orphanage by their parents in the mistaken belief that their children would be offered food, education and loving care. Thus, Morgan began to work towards reuniting children with their families. Today, LFBS focuses on child well being & development, family & community development, advocacy of child rights and has built partnerships with Haitian authorities as well as hired a team of Haitian employees. Morgan, now 24, lives in Haiti full-time. She was awarded the Meritorious Service Cross Medal, the Queen's Diamond Jubilee Medal, the Rotary International Paul Harris Fellowship Award for Humanitarian Impact and named a finalist for the Berger-Marks Foundation for Young Women Impacting Social Justice. She was a guest speaker at the 2013 United Nations Youth Assembly and the Udayan Care International Conference in New Delhi, India in 2016. For more information and to make a donation, please visit http://www.littlefootprintsbigsteps.com.
News Article | December 3, 2016
It’s the ethical Christmas gift that can throw a financial lifeline to people in poorer countries who are trying to improve their lives. Lendwithcare gift vouchers allow Britons to lend relatively small sums of money to people in 11 countries who are keen to start or grow their own small business – and the occupied Palestinian territories have now been added to the list of locations, meaning it is possible to lend money to individuals and families in the West Bank and Gaza. People such as Tayseer Ghanem, a 58-year-old farmer, and Walaa Shaltaf who runs a beauty salon. Guardian Money has previously featured the vouchers, which for a limited time are available as a “buy one, get one free”. So if you are struggling for a present for a loved one, how about the gift that really does keep on giving? Alternatively, there are plenty of other ethical Christmas gifts for those looking for something that will transform people’s lives or help the planet (see below). Lendwithcare is a peer-to-peer microfinance website set up by aid charity Care International UK, which fights poverty and injustice around the world. When you buy someone a Lendwithcare gift voucher, they then go online and choose an individual who they are going to lend the money to. It might be a rice farmer in Cambodia, a market stall holder in Zambia or a taxi driver in Ecuador. In most cases the voucher will be a contribution towards the total amount the entrepreneur is looking for. He or she will use the money to start or expand their small business, thereby helping them to feed their family and send their children to school. The idea is that the loan will be repaid, and the voucher recipient can either keep the money or “recycle” it by lending it to another budding entrepreneur, and then another. The vouchers are available in various amounts from £15 upwards and can be emailed to the recipient or printed out and tucked inside a Christmas card. Previous recipients of the vouchers have told the charity that it was one of their favourite gifts “because it gets the whole family gathered around the computer to pick an entrepreneur to help”. Remember that these are loans, not handouts. The money is paid back – typically over anything from four to 36 months depending on the recipient’s plans for it – in instalments to the local microfinance institution (MFI) that has partnered with Care International in that country. The MFI then transfers these repayments to Care International, which credits them to the UK lender’s Lendwithcare account. Since their launch in 2010, more than 33,000 people – many of them Guardian readers – have lent more than £11.5m to 46,400 entrepreneurs, helping people in Togo, Benin, Cambodia, Vietnam, Ecuador, Pakistan, Philippines, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Rwanda and, now, the occupied Palestinian territories. While Care International works extensively across the Middle East, this is Lendwithcare’s first activity in the region. It has teamed up with a local MFI called Reef Finance, which operates in the West Bank and Gaza, and specialises in providing agricultural, business, housing and personal loans to individuals – typically for things such as greenhouses and livestock. “The Palestinian territories are within a volatile region, but more than 4.4 million people live in the West Bank and Gaza and, like everywhere, they need to earn a living,” the charity says. “We believe that in helping people to increase their income and tackle poverty, they may become less vulnerable to the effects of conflict and will be in a better position to … continue with their livelihoods during peacetime, and to be more hopeful about the future.” The amounts being sought vary. Tayseer Ghanem, for example, is seeking a loan of $2,000 (£1,600) to buy agricultural materials such as fertiliser, seeds and pesticide. A farmer all his life, the married father-of-four has a greenhouse and grows tomatoes, cucumbers, aubergines and other vegetables which he sells through a co-operative. Walaa Shaltaf, meanwhile, is looking for a $3,000 loan (£2,400). Divorced and living with her parents, Shaltaf started working in salons 13 years ago when she finished her basic education, and recently opened her own, Beautiful All The Time. She feels she would boost her income if she offered more treatments and sold beauty products at the salon, so she plans to buy creams, cosmetics and other items, plus additional equipment. She also wants to hire an assistant. Lendwithcare says that, as with all its MFI partners, the organisations it is working with in the occupied territories “have undergone rigorous research and are deemed to have met our stringent ethical criteria”. It adds: “Due to the elevated security situation in the region, our partners and entrepreneurs in the West Bank and Gaza undergo additional verification.” In most cases, the MFI partner there will buy and deliver the items requested by an entrepreneur and financed by Lendwithcare. To date, only 10 Lendwithcare loans have ever defaulted – a pretty impressive statistic. In the case of five of these the individuals died, and the other five were made to groups in Malawi who lost their businesses or incurred difficulties because of severe floods. This Christmas the charity’s buy one, get one free offer means that if you buy a gift voucher, you’ll also get a £15 voucher free (though this portion can’t be withdrawn after it is paid back). This year’s crop of ethical Christmas gifts range from chickens and shares in a wind turbine to composting toilets for refugee camps and wash-cloths for keeping camels’ udders clean, writes Rupert Jones. The charity goat is also present and correct. The Good Gifts website, run by the Charities Advisory Trust, has a goat for £25, or two for £45. Present Aid, which supports the work of Christian Aid, is offering a kid goat for £9 and a nanny goat for £22. Oxfam has them, too, and is offering a free milk chocolate goat with every Oxfam Unwrapped gift card order until Friday 9 December. Some of the more offbeat gifts we found include: a kit for making banana wine, a popular drink in Malawi (£25 from Present Aid); the aforementioned wash-cloths for Kenyan camels (£15 from Good Gifts); “a pile of poo”, which is a mix of manure and organic fertiliser, plus some training in eco-friendly farming techniques (£9 from Oxfam’s online shop); and an acre of rainforest (£52 from Good Gifts – or those with deep pockets can treat someone to 25 acres for £1,300). With some of the websites, including Present Aid, the money will go towards relevant projects rather than being used to buy that animal or item. However, sites such as Good Gifts guarantee that your money buys the described gift. Meanwhile, the Small Wind Co-op is offering wind energy gift certificates, available in any amount from a minimum of £100. Available until 16 December, these can be exchanged for shares in the co-op which is building three wind turbines in Scotland and Wales. So far, it has attracted more than 350 members and raised more than £1.1m to fund the installation of farm-scale turbines in Wemyss Bay and Inverclyde in Scotland, and Ceredigion in Mid Wales. Projected average annual returns for shareholders are 6.5% over 20 years, says a spokeswoman. Meanwhile, waste company London Junk is offering what it calls “the world’s first ever waste collection experience day gift package”. You might think they would pay you to get elbow-deep in the capital’s rubbish, but this comes with a £300 price-tag. Ethical Consumer, which describes itself as the UK’s leading alternative consumer magazine, has a Christmas gift guidefor those on the hunt for present ideas. It mentions Hive.co.uk as “a great alternative to Amazon” for books, combining online shopping with support for local shops. The magazine’s best buys for perfume and aftershave include Dolma, Neal’s Yard Remedies, Florame and Pacifica. These are all vegan and not tested on animals. On the clothing front, People Tree is described as a stand-out best buy, and on the high street H&M, Marks & Spencer and New Look are all recommended. If you are still to buy your Christmas cards this year, writes Miles Brignall, we recommend as a Guardian Money best-buy the handmade cards from Sreepur in Bangladesh, from which 100% of the purchase price goes to charity. The Sreepur Village charity, two hours north of the country’s capital, Dhaka, cares for up to 100 destitute women and 500 abandoned children. Started 25 years ago by former British Airways flight attendant Pat Kerr, it now helps fund itself from the sale of the cards it makes. You can hand over your money safe in the knowledge that the organisation has made a real difference: in 2009 we visited the project and were so impressed that we have promoted the cards ever since. A pack of 16 costs £14.75, delivered in the UK. At the heart of the project is a paper-making facility. Women from the local community have been trained to produce it from locally grown jute, and the cards are decorated in return for a living wage – money that makes a huge difference to their lives. British Airways flies the cards to the UK for free, while volunteers collect and distribute them here. This ensures all the money spent on the cards goes directly to Sreepur. For more info and to buy the cards go to sreepurcards.org. Cards are sent within 24 hours of an order being placed.
News Article | October 28, 2016
The American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities (AAAASF) elected Dr. David Watts as its president during an annual board meeting Oct. 15. Watts has served on the board since 2010 as a member of the standards committee, education committee, innovations committee and business development committee. He has also served as treasurer and on the executive committee. Watts is founder and chief executive officer of the Plastic & Cosmetic Surgery Institute in Vineland, New Jersey. He also is chief executive officer of the Ambulatory Surgical Center and Watts Plastic Surgery Association, Inc. in Vineland, New Jersey, as well as founder and principal of Dr. Watts’ Skin Care International, LLC and founder and chief executive officer for Accreditation Solutions Alliance, LLC. He earned his Bachelor of Arts in biology from Cheyney State University in Pennsylvania and his doctor of medicine degree from Jefferson Medical College in Pennsylvania. He was trained in general surgery at the University of Rochester and is board certified in general and plastic surgery. He was trained in plastic surgery at Johns Hopkins University, where he also served as an assistant clinical professor in plastic surgery. He has served as an adviser for Johnson & Johnson Worldwide Consumer and Personal Products; in the United States Army Reserves and Walter Reed Hospital and as a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons. He has been a member of: Watts said, “I am honored to have been chosen as the next leader of this extraordinary association. For nearly 40 years, AAAASF board members and staff have worked tirelessly to ensure patient safety in our accredited facilities. I look forward to propelling the organization into an exciting future that holds considerable opportunities.” About the AAAASF The American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities, Inc. (AAAASF) was established in 1980 to standardize and improve the quality of medical and surgical care in outpatient facilities and assure the public that patient safety is top priority in an accredited facility. More than 2,400 outpatient facilities are accredited by AAAASF, one of the largest not-for-profit accrediting organizations in the United States. Surgeons, legislators, state and national health agencies and patients acknowledge that AAAASF sets the "gold standard" for quality patient care. AAAASF programs include outpatient surgical, procedural, oral maxillofacial, international surgical, rehabilitation and dental. AAAASF is also approved by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to accredit ambulatory surgery centers, rehabilitation and outpatient physical therapy agencies, as well as rural health clinics. For more information, visit aaaasf.org or Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter.
Digirolamo A.M.,CARE International |
Stansbery P.,Save the Children |
Lung'aho M.,CARE International
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2014
A growing body of evidence supports the notion that integrated programs addressing nutrition and stimulation provide stronger impacts on nutritional and developmental outcomes than either intervention alone. When translating evidence into practice, several advantages and challenges for integration can be noted. Combined interventions may be more efficient than separate interventions, because they are intended for the same population and make use of the same facilities, transportation, and client contacts. In addition, for families, particularly for those most at risk, combined interventions can also lead to increased access to services. However, in order for integrated nutrition and early childhood development interventions to be successful, a variety of challenges must be addressed. These include workload of staff and supervisors, communication and coordination among different ministries and among staff in different sectors, and common language and measurement. It must be acknowledged at both the national and community levels that comprehensive, integrated care addressing both the physical and developmental needs of the child is key to promoting optimal health, growth, and development for children. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
News Article | November 11, 2016
DANA POINT, CA--(Marketwired - Nov 11, 2016) - Attorney Craig T. Beling has been recognized by the YAB association for his outstanding contribution in the area of sustained mentoring of destitute young men in Africa through empowerment organization Village Care International. He is expected to be honored with an official commendation by the YAB association in the third quarter of 2016. The recognition comes in the light of Mr. Beling's extraordinary contribution to building communities that are self-sufficient and self-sustaining through a multi-point program run by Village Care International. Alongside a stellar career as a Wall Street lawyer working for some of the world's largest financial organizations such as Fidelity Investments and Société Générale, Craig Beling is also a passionate believer in the development of local communities. Leveraging his experience as a community leader and a successful entrepreneur setting up Craig Beling and Associates, a law firm specializing in debt renegotiation, debt settlement corporate law, contracts, bankruptcy, real estate, and bankruptcy, he invested his time and effort in the mentoring of young men from underprivileged backgrounds. His varied experience includes directorship of a Serbian engineering company and as a legal consultant for the Clarus Capital Group. His achievements include the development of high-value capital market assets of more than $200 million and $2 billion in advisory revenue. Village Care International focuses on the building and revival of local African communities. In partnership with Craig Beling and Associates as well as donors from around the world, the organization uses a unique non-aided approach to help facilitate community building. Having proven that outside aid has had a minimal impact on the daily lives of underprivileged African communities, Village Care International works with these communities, helping them build systems that provide healthcare, nutrition, education, sanitation, economic development and sustainable livelihoods. As a result, the Craig Beling Village Care International partnership supports work that has improved the lives of more than 2500 communities across 10 countries in Africa. Craig Beling and Associates is a law firm with specialized expertise in debt management, debt renegotiation, and debt resettlement for private individuals and corporate clientele. Craig T. Beling continues to work as a consultant and director of several organizations, using his extensive expertise in personal mentoring and community development to improve the lives of disenfranchised peoples. Attorney Craig Beling is being commended for the heap of work that he did for the Village Care International Movement. The VCI movement is a group of organized people the work together to empower people in Africa by forcing them to become self-sufficient. Beling is a southern California attorney who does most of his work in the field of debt. Some of the most prevalent topics that his law firm handles are topics such as debt settlement, debt negotiation and debt repair. He works mainly in the field of finance, but he has also been a consultant in many areas. His work with Village Care International has won him an award. The Village Care International project is a movement that forces Africans to take charge of their finances. The founders of the program believe that Africans must create their own positive destinies instead of relying on other organizations to donate money to them. They are huge advocates of self-sufficiency, and they believe that the resources are available right in the African's back yard. Village Care International started in 2005. Today it consists of more than 5,000 self-sufficient communities spread about over 13 countries. The main program that the Africans are taught is called Outcomes, Practices and Open Space. OPAS is a three-day seminar that the presenters present to African communities as a first step. It consists of a multi-dimensional plan of recovery and prosperity. Donation management is one of the strategies in the program. Supervisors are then planted into the area in which they will be orchestrating the program. Any donations that come into the program automatically go to housing for the supervisors and facilitators who provide the African people with advice on how to live. Currently, thousands of volunteers are involved with this movement, and it has been successful in that so many communities have emerged since its deployment. Craig Beling Village Care International advocate dedicated his time and energy to the program, and he is being acknowledged and recognized for His dedication. He has apparently helped the people of Africa to achieve something that the would not have been able to achieve otherwise.
News Article | November 1, 2016
In July this year, nearly every international humanitarian organisation pulled out some staff from South Sudan’s capital, Juba, following days of fighting. In the case of my organisation (Care International), we were back in the country within five days. But three months on, many institutions continue to maintain a minimal presence on the ground and the mood among aid workers has dipped following the reports of rape and murder of humanitarians and continuing attacks in parts of the country that seem to be purposefully targeting aid workers. South Sudan has now become one of the most dangerous countries in the world to be an aid worker, with a total of 67 humanitarians killed since the outbreak of conflict in 2013. So what is the threshold for withdrawal? Each NGO will have its own answer, but is there a bottom line we all share? Is the need dire enough to justify continuing to help the people affected even after the killing of one aid worker, maybe two? Nobody wants to make this kind of cold-blooded calculation and despite what some may think, there is rarely a guy squirrelled away in a dusty windowless HQ crunching these kinds of numbers and assessing risk. Instead, it often comes down to individuals in the country, like me, to make these terrible decisions – the bottom line for us right now is that we will stay. With one in five people forced to flee their homes and more than half the population needing urgent humanitarian assistance, the need is too great. While NGOs can’t control all the factors responsible for security, we need to look at how programmes can function when staff cannot access them. One way is to empower local communities to take ownership of projects – this can be key to keeping programmes alive in some of the most dangerous places. In Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya, Care International has trained more than 1,500 refugees to support the humanitarian operation. During times of heightened security threats this has allowed refugees themselves to continue running operations when the camp has been inaccessible to non-refugee staff. Another measure that could be taken to ensure NGOs stay present in South Sudan and improve the safety for aid workers is reform of the UN peacekeeping force in the country. Around $1bn is spent on peacekeeping forces in South Sudan who have repeatedly been found to have failed in their basic mandate of protecting civilians and aid workers. As we see a new UN secretary general about to take office – one with a humanitarian background – and a new head of the UN mission in South Sudan, now is the time to make changes. Countries providing funds to peacekeeping forces around the world must hold troops accountable to higher standards and make sure that their performance is a core focus area for António Guterres Guterres in his new office. If you would like to comment on the unfolding situation for aid workers in South Sudan, please email us at Globaldevpros@theguardian.com, putting ‘Aid Worker safety’ in the subject field. Join our community of development professionals and humanitarians. Follow @GuardianGDP on Twitter.
News Article | April 26, 2016
Stephen O’Brien, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief, speaks during the meeting on the humanitarian situation in Syria January 27, 2016 at the UN in New York (AFP Photo/UN Photo/Manuel Elias) Geneva (AFP) - Some 60 million people worldwide need assistance due to havoc wreaked by the El Nino climate phenomenon, but a shortage of funding could threaten the delivery of life-saving aid, the UN warned Tuesday. "The numbers are truly alarming," UN humanitarian chief Stephen O'Brien told reporters in Geneva. The El Nino effect, which comes with warming sea surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific, causes heavy rains in some parts of the world and drought elsewhere. The 2015-2016 El Nino was one of the most powerful on record, and has caused significant damage across 13 countries across Africa, Asia, Central and South America and the Pacific, sending malnutrition levels spiralling and leading to greater spread of diseases. In addition to the some 60 million people directly affected by El Nino, "there will be millions more who are at risk," O'Brien said, following a meeting in Geneva with representatives of affected countries and aid organisations. Floods and failed rains caused by El Nino have sparked a dramatic rise in the number of people going hungry in large parts of Africa, with some 32 million people in the southern part of the continent alone in need of some form of assistance. Ethiopia, which is experiencing its worst drought in half a century, is considered "ground zero" in the crisis, with some 10 million people in need of aid, Care International Secretary General Wolfgang Jamann said. But getting aid to all those in need is no easy task. The UN estimates that at least $3.6 billion is required to meet critical needs for food and agricultural support, as well as health and emergency water and sanitation needs linked to El Nino, and O'Brien warned that figure was likely to rise. But even if the needs remain stable, less than half of what is required -- only $1.4 billion -- has been provided. "So far what has been raised is far short of what we need," he said, cautioning that "lifesaving programmes, including the food pipeline in Ethiopia, are at risk of being cut short." "We have weeks, not months to get this right." Making matters worse, the communities still reeling from the impact of El Nino are likely to get slammed again later this year by a return swing of the pendulum with its opposite number, La Nina. In addition to providing desperately needed aid, the world should now be preparing for La Nina, which is characterised by unusual cool ocean surface temperatures in the central and eastern tropical Pacific, said the UN's Izumi Nakamitsu. "If La Nina happens, the local community level coping mechanism is already quite low, because they have been coping with El Nino impact," she told reporters. "So when that hits, the community will be again devastated, and possibly even much worse," she said.
Dynes M.,Emory University |
Stephenson R.,Emory University |
Rubardt M.,CARE International |
Bartel D.,CARE International
Health and Place | Year: 2012
The paper uses data from Ethiopia and Kenya to examine how perceptions of community norms differentially shape contraceptive use among men and women. Women whose current number of sons is lower than their perception of the community ideal had lower odds of reporting contraceptive use, while women whose own personal ideal number of sons is lower than the community ideal had greater odds of reporting contraceptive use. Men and women in Kenya were influenced more by their perception of their social network's approval of family planning than by their own approval of family planning. Results highlight the importance of place. , conceptualized as the place-specific perceptions of fertility ideals, when conducting reproductive health research. Identification of people who use contraception in the face of pervasive pronatalist community norms presents a point for future intervention. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.