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Cassano delle Murge, Italy

Sotgiu G.,University of Sassari | Migliori G.B.,Care and Research Institute
Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2015

Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to at least two of the most effective anti-tuberculosis drugs (i.e., isoniazid and rifampicin). Therapeutic regimens based on second- and third-line anti-tuberculosis medicines showed poor efficacy, safety, and tolerability profiles. It was estimated that in 2012 the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis incidence ranged from 300,000 to 600,000 cases, mainly diagnosed in the Eastern European and Central Asian countries. The highest proportion of cases is among individuals previously exposed to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Three main conditions can favour the emergence and spread of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis: the poor implementation of the DOTS strategy, the shortage or the poor quality of the anti-tuberculosis drugs, and the poor therapeutic adherence of the patients to the prescribed regimens.Consultation with tuberculosis experts (e.g., consilium) is crucial to tailor the best anti-tuberculosis therapy.New therapeutic options are necessary: bedaquiline and delamanid seem promising drugs; in particular, during the development phase they demonstrated a protective effect against the emergence of further resistances towards the backbone drugs. In the recent past, other antibiotics have been administered off-label: the most relevant efficacy, safety, and tolerability profile was proved in linezolid-, meropenem/clavulanate-, cotrimoxazole-containing regimens.New research and development activities are needed in the diagnostic, therapeutic, preventive fields. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Raviglione M.,WHO | Marais B.,University of Sydney | Floyd K.,WHO | Lonnroth K.,WHO | And 14 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Tuberculosis is still one of the most important causes of death worldwide. The 2010 Lancet tuberculosis series provided a comprehensive overview of global control efforts and challenges. In this update we review recent progress. With improved control efforts, the world and most regions are on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of decreasing tuberculosis incidence by 2015, and the Stop TB Partnership target of halving 1990 mortality rates by 2015; the exception is Africa. Despite these advances, full scale-up of tuberculosis and HIV collaborative activities remains challenging and emerging drug-resistant tuberculosis is a major threat. Recognition of the effect that noncommunicable diseases-such as smoking-related lung disease, diet-related diabetes mellitus, and alcohol and drug misuse-have on individual vulnerability, as well as the contribution of poor living conditions to community vulnerability, shows the need for multidisciplinary approaches. Several new diagnostic tests are being introduced in endemic countries and for the first time in 40 years a coordinated portfolio of promising new tuberculosis drugs exists. However, none of these advances offer easy solutions. Achievement of international tuberculosis control targets and maintenance of these gains needs optimum national health policies and services, with ongoing investment into new approaches and strategies. Despite growing funding in recent years, a serious shortfall persists. International and national financial uncertainty places gains at serious risk. Perseverance and renewed commitment are needed to achieve global control of tuberculosis, and ultimately, its elimination. Source

Creswell J.,World Health Organization | Raviglione M.,World Health Organization | Ottmani S.,World Health Organization | Migliori G.B.,Care and Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2011

Globally, the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is declining very slowly, and the noncommunicable disease (NCD) burden for many countries is steadily increasing. Several NCDs, such as diabetes mellitus, alcohol use disorders and smoking-related conditions, are responsible for a significant proportion of TB cases globally, and in the European region, represent a larger attributable fraction for TB disease than HIV. Concrete steps are needed to address NCDs and their risk factors. We reviewed published studies involving TB and NCDs, and present a review and discussion of how they are linked, the implications for case detection and management, and how prevention efforts may be strengthened by integration of services. These NCDs put patients at increased risk for developing TB and at risk for poor treatment outcomes. However, they also present an opportunity to provide better care through increased casedetection activities, improved clinical management and better access to care for both TB and NCDs. Hastening the global decline in TB incidence may be assisted by strengthening these types of activities. Source

Caminero J.A.,Servicio de Neumologia | Sotgiu G.,University of Sassari | Zumla A.,University College London | Migliori G.B.,Care and Research Institute
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis are generally thought to have high mortality rates. However, many cases can be treated with the right combination and rational use of available antituberculosis drugs. This Review describes the evidence available for each drug and discusses the basis for recommendations for the treatment of patients with MDR and XDR tuberculosis. The recommended regimen is the combination of at least four drugs to which the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate is likely to be susceptible. Drugs are chosen with a stepwise selection process through five groups on the basis of efficacy, safety, and cost. Among the first group (the oral first-line drugs) high-dose isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol are thought of as an adjunct for the treatment of MDR and XDR tuberculosis. The second group is the fluoroquinolones, of which the first choice is high-dose levofloxacin. The third group are the injectable drugs, which should be used in the following order: capreomycin, kanamycin, then amikacin. The fourth group are called the second-line drugs and should be used in the following order: thioamides, cycloserine, then aminosalicylic acid. The fifth group includes drugs that are not very effective or for which there are sparse clinical data. Drugs in group five should be used in the following order: clofazimine, amoxicillin with clavulanate, linezolid, carbapenems, thioacetazone, then clarithromycin. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Miotto P.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Cirillo D.M.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Migliori G.B.,Care and Research Institute
Chest | Year: 2015

Physicians are more and more often challenged by difficult-to-treat cases of TB. They include patients infected by strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin (multidrug-resistant TB) or to at least one fluoroquinolone (FQ) and one injectable, second-line anti-TB drug in addition to isoniazid and rifampicin (extensively drugresistant TB). The drug treatment of these cases is very long, toxic, andexpensive, and, unfortunately, the proportion of unsatisfactory outcomes is still considerably high. Although FQs and pyrazinamide (PZA) are backbone drugs in the available anti-TB regimens, several uncertainties remain about their mechanisms of action andeven more remain about the mechanisms leading to drug resistance. From a clinical point of view, a better understanding of the genetic basis of drug resistance will aid (1) clinicians to provide quality clinical management to both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB cases (while preventingemergence of further resistance), and (2) developers of new molecular-based diagnostic assays to better direct their researcheff orts toward a new generation of sensitive, specific, cheap, andeasy-to-use pointof-care diagnostics. In this review we provide an update on the molecular mechanisms leading to FQ-and PZA-resistance in M tuberculosis. © 2015 AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CHEST PHYSICIANS. Source

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