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Mond H.G.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Wickham G.G.,Founding Partner of Telectronics | Sloman J.G.,Cardiovascular Unit
Heart Lung and Circulation | Year: 2012

Although Dr Albert Hyman in New York is believed to have built the first cardiac pacemaker in 1932, he acknowledges Dr Mark Lidwell in Sydney, Australia as having not only built a pacemaker, but also successfully used it to resuscitate a newborn infant in or before 1929. Fully implantable pacemakers, however, were not possible until 1958, following the development of the silicon transistor. Within three years of that first implant, a pulse generator attached to epicardial leads was implanted at the Royal Melbourne Hospital. About the same time, an engineer in Sydney with intermittent complete heart block who had received epicardial leads and an external pulse generator proposed a simple sensing circuit, leading to the design of the first demand pacing system. By the mid 1960s, physicians were inserting transvenous leads in the right ventricle attached to pulse generators implanted in the anterior abdominal wall. In 1963, an Australian pacemaker company, Telectronics, was founded in Sydney. This innovative company-designed many of the features of transvenous leads and pulse generators we take for granted today. Australia also played a leading role in the design or early evaluation of the lithium power source, lead fixation, steroid elution, automatic anti-tachycardia pacing algorithms and the minute ventilation rate adaptive sensor. This manuscript describes the challenges and frustrations of those pioneers: physicians, surgeons and biomedical engineers. © 2011 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ).

Dolara A.,Cardiovascular Unit
Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine | Year: 2011

A review of recent articles dealing with long-term outcomes of catheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation has confirmed the success rates obtained in the short period. Repetition of the ablation procedure was necessary often in a high percentage of patients. Repeat ablation as well as continued vigilance for atrial fibrillation recurrence must be considered by clinicians when discussing the pros and cons of the ablation procedure with patients. © 2011 Italian Federation of Cardiology.

Oliva F.,Cardiologia 2 Heart Failure and Heart Transplant Program | Oliva F.,Outcome Coordinating Center | Mortara A.,Policlinico di Monza | Cacciatore G.,San Giovanni Addolorata Hospital | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Heart Failure | Year: 2012

Aims Registries and surveys improve knowledge of the 'real world'. This paper Aims to describe baseline clinical profiles, management strategies, and the in-hospital outcome of patients admitted to hospital for an acute heart failure (AHF) episode.Methods and resultsIN-HF Outcome is a nationwide, prospective, multicentre, observational study conducted in 61 Cardiology Centres in Italy. Up to December 2009, 5610 patients had been enrolled, 1855 (33) with AHF and 3755 (67) with chronic heart failure (CHF). Baseline and in-hospital outcome data of AHF patients are presented. Mean age was 72 ± 12 years, and 39.8 were female. Hospital admission was due to new-onset heart failure (HF) in 43 of cases. Co-morbid conditions were observed more frequently in the worsening HF group, while those with de novo HF showed a higher heart rate, blood pressure, and more preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Electrical devices were previously implanted in 13.3 of the entire group. Inotropes were administered in 19.4 of the patients. The median duration of hospital stay was 10 days (interquartile range 7-15). All-cause in-hospital death was 6.4, similar in worsening and de novo HF. Older age, hypotension, cardiogenic shock, pulmonary oedema, symptoms of hypoperfusion, hyponatraemia, and elevated creatinine were independent predictors of all-cause death.ConclusionOur registry confirms that in-hospital mortality in AHF is still high, with a long length of stay. Pharmacological treatment seems to be practically unchanged in the last decades, and the adherence to HF guidelines concerning implantable cardioverter defibrillators/cardiac resynchronization therapy is still very low. Some AHF phenotypes are characterized by worst prognosis and need specific research projects. © 2012 The Author.

Glenie T.J.,Greenlane Cardiovascular Service | El-Jack S.S.,Cardiovascular Unit
Heart Lung and Circulation | Year: 2012

We present a case of repeat percutaneous intervention on a coronary artery bypass vein graft using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) covered stents. The original intervention was performed using a combination of PTFE covered stents and bare metal stents for a large vein graft aneurysm. Successful exclusion of the aneurysm was demonstrated on follow up angiography. The patient represented six years after the original intervention with a non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Further angiography demonstrated a recurrence of the aneurysm which we presumed to be due to late malapposition and required repeat PTFE covered stent deployment. © 2012 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ).

Cortigiani L.,Cardiovascular Unit | Bigi R.,University of Milan | Sicari R.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience
European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging | Year: 2012

Stunning and hibernation represent two different forms of tissue viability identifiable in acute coronary syndromes and chronic ischaemic cardiomyopathy, respectively. Functional recovery occurs spontaneously with myocardial stunning, while it generally follows revascularization in case of hibernating myocardium. Low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography is an accurate modality for identifying myocardial stunning and provides important information on ventricular remodelling after both systemic thrombolysis and primary angioplasty. In patients with conservatively treated infarction, the prognostic significance of viability by dobutamine stress echocardiography correlates with residual pump function. Substantial contractile reserve is predictive of favourable outcome in patients with poor but not in those with preserved or slightly reduced left ventricular function. Non-invasive assessment of coronary flow reserve with transthoracic Doppler echocardiography of the left anterior descending coronary artery allows to distinguish between necrotic and stunned myocardium and predicts ventricular remodelling following primary angioplasty. Resting echocardiographic examination can provide information on hibernating myocardium. In particular, systolic thickening <7 mm, restrictive filling pattern, and high end-systolic volume are predictive of no viability. Compared with nuclear imaging, dobutamine stress echocardiography is more specific for predicting functional recovery, less expensive, more generally available and radiation-free. A large body of evidence collected over the years demonstrates the favourable prognostic impact of revascularizing extensive myocardial territories which are found viable at dobutamine stress echocardiography in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy. The prognostic implications of viability- guided revascularization have been clearly established in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. However, the prognostic value of myocardial viability has been questioned by the results of the STICH trial that did not demonstrate any advantage of survival in the patients with a large extent of myocardial viability undergoing revascularization. Is the end of a paradigm that deeply influenced clinical practice so far or just a neutral result that can be ignored due to the several limitations of study design? In the present review,we will address the main advantages and limitations of ultrasounds for the evaluation of myocardial viability and try to demonstrate that viability is still viable. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2011.

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