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Garcia-Calzon S.,University of Navarra | Garcia-Calzon S.,Navarra Institute for Health Research | Zalba G.,University of Navarra | Zalba G.,Navarra Institute for Health Research | And 17 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: Dietary factors can affect telomere length (TL), a biomarker of aging, through oxidation and inflammation-related mechanisms. A Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) could help to understand the effect of the inflammatory potential of the diet on telomere shortening. Objective: This study aimed to determine the association of the DII with TL and to examine whether diet-associated inflammation could modify the telomere attrition rate after a 5-y follow-up of a Mediterranean dietary intervention. Design: This was a prospective study of 520 participants at high cardiovascular disease risk (mean 6 SD age: 67.0 ± 6.0 y, 45% males) from the PREDIMED-NAVARRA (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea- NAVARRA) trial. Leukocyte TL was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction at baseline and after 5 y of follow-up. The DII was calculated from self-reported data by using a validated 137-item food-frequency questionnaire. Results: Longer telomeres at baseline were found in participants who had a more anti-inflammatory diet (lowest DII score) (P-trend = 0.012). Longitudinal analyses further showed that a greater anti-inflammatory potential of the diet (i.e., a decrease in the DII) could significantly slow down the rate of telomere shortening. Moreover, the multivariableadjusted OR for short telomeres (z score #20th percentile) was 1.80 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.17) in a comparison between the highest (proinflammatory) and the lowest (anti-inflammatory) DII tertiles. Similarly, a greater DII (greatest proinflammatory values) after a 5-y follow-up was associated with almost a 2-fold higher risk of accelerated telomere attrition compared with the highest decrease in DII (greatest antiinflammatory values) during this period (P-trend = 0.025). Conclusions: This study showed both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the inflammatory potential of the diet and telomere shortening in subjects with a high cardiovascular disease risk. Our findings are consistent with, but do not show, a beneficial effect of adherence to an anti-inflammatory diet on aging and health by slowing down telomere shortening. These results suggest that diet might play a key role as a determinant of TL through proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory mechanisms. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

Farras M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Castaner O.,CIBER ISCIII | Martin-Pelaez S.,Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research Group Regicor Study Group | Hernaez A.,Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research Group Regicor Study Group | And 12 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2015

Scope: Consumption of olive oil (OO) phenolic compounds (PCs) has beneficial effects on lipid profile. HDL functionality is currently considered to be a more important issue than its circulating quantity. Our aim was to assess whether functional virgin olive oils (FVOOs), one enriched with its own PC (500 ppm; FVOO) and another with OOPC (250 ppm) plus additional complementary PCs from thyme (250 ppm) (total: 500 ppm; FVOOT (functional virgin olive oil with thyme)), could improve HDL functionality related properties versus a virgin OO control (80 ppm; VOO). Methods and results: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover, controlled trial, 33 hypercholesterolemic volunteers received 25 mL/day of VOO, FVOO, and FVOOT during 3 wk. HDL cholesterol increased 5.74% (p < 0.05) versus its baseline after the FVOOT consumption in the participants without hypolipidemic medication. We detected, after FVOOT consumption, an increase in HDL2-subclass (34.45, SD = 6.38) versus VOO intake (32.73, SD = 6.71). An increment in esterified cholesterol/free cholesterol and phospholipids/free cholesterol in HDL was observed after FVOOT consumption (1.73, SD = 0.56; 5.44, SD = 1.39) compared with VOO intervention (1.53, SD = 0.35; 4.97, SD = 0.81) and FVOO intervention (1.50, SD = 0.33; 4.97, SD = 0.81). Accordingly, lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase mass increased after FVOOT consumption (1228 μg/mL, SD = 130), compared with VOO consumption (1160 μg/mL, SD = 144). An improvement in HDL oxidative-status was reflected after FVOOT consumption versus its baseline, given an increment in the paraoxonase activity (118 × 103 U/L, SD = 24). Conclusion: FVOOT improves HDL-subclass distribution and composition, and metabolism/antioxidant enzyme activities. FVOOT could be a useful dietary tool in the management of high cardiovascular risk patients. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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