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Covas M.-I.,Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research Group | Covas M.-I.,CIBER ISCIII | Covas M.-I.,NUPROAS Nutritional Project Assessment Handesbolag NUPROAS HB | De La Torre R.,CIBER ISCIII | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Olive oil is considered to be one of the most healthy dietary fats. However, several types of olive oils are present in the market. A key question for the consumer is: What of the olive oils is the best when concerning nutritional purposes? With the data available at present, the answer is: the Virgin Olive Oil (VOO), rich in phenolic compounds. On November 2011, the European Food Safety Authority released a claim concerning the benefits of daily ingestion of olive oil rich in phenolic compounds, such as VOO. In this review, we summarised the key work that has provided the evidence of the benefits of VOO consumption on other types of edible oils, even olive oils. We focused on data from randomised, controlled human studies, which are capable of providing the evidence of Level I that is required for performing nutritional recommendations at population level. Copyright © The Authors 2015.

Ortega-Azorin C.,University of Valencia | Ortega-Azorin C.,CIBER ISCIII | Sorli J.V.,University of Valencia | Sorli J.V.,CIBER ISCIII | And 34 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics | Year: 2014

Background: A variant (rs3812316, C771G, and Gln241His) in the MLXIPL (Max-like protein X interacting protein-like) gene encoding the carbohydrate response element binding protein has been associated with lower triglycerides. However, its association with cardiovascular diseases and gene-diet interactions modulating these traits are unknown. Methods and Results: We studied 7166 participants in the PREvención with DIeta MEDiterránea trial testing a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) intervention versus a control diet for cardiovascular prevention, with a median follow-up of 4.8 years. Diet, lipids, MLXIPL polymorphisms, and cardiovascular events were assessed. Data were analyzed at baseline and longitudinally. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios for cardiovascular outcomes. The MLXIPL-rs3812316 was associated with lower baseline triglycerides (P=5.5×10-5) and lower hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.85; P=1.4×10-6 in G-carriers versus CC). This association was modulated by baseline adherence to MedDiet. When adherence to MedDiet was high, the protection was stronger (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.51-0.77; P=8.6×10-6) than when adherence to MedDiet was low (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.70-1.09; P=0.219). Throughout the follow-up, both the MLXIPL-rs3812316 (P=3.8×10-6) and the MedDiet intervention (P=0.030) were significantly associated with decreased triglycerides. Likewise in G-carriers MedDiet intervention was associated with greater total cardiovascular risk reduction and specifically for myocardial infarction. In the MedDiet, but not in the control group, we observed lower myocardial infarction incidence in G-carriers versus CC (hazard ratios, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.12-0.93; P=0.036 and 0.90; 95% CI, 0.35-2.33; P=0.830, respectively). Conclusions: Our novel results suggest that MedDiet enhances the triglyceride-lowering effect of the MLXIPL-rs3812316 variant and strengthens its protective effect on myocardial infarction incidence. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

Pastor A.,Integrative Pharmacology and Systems Neuroscience Research Group | Pastor A.,University of Barcelona | Pastor A.,CIBER ISCIII | Fernandez-Aranda F.,University of Barcelona | And 23 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

The endocannabinoid (eCB) system can promote food intake by increasing odor detection in mice. The eCB system is over-active in human obesity. Our aim is to measure circulating eCB concentrations and olfactory capacity in a human sample that includes people with obesity and explore the possible interaction between olfaction, obesity and the eCB system. The study sample was made up of 161 females with five groups of body mass index subcategories ranging from under-weight to morbidly obese.We assessed olfactory capacity with the "SniffińSticks" test, which measures olfactory threshold-discrimination-identification (TDI) capacity.We measured plasma concentrations of the eCBs 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonoylethanolamine or anandamide (AEA), and several eCBrelated compounds, 2-acylglycerols and N-acylethanolamines. 2-AG and other 2-acylglycerols fasting plasma circulating plasma concentrations were higher in obese and morbidly obese subjects. AEA and other N-acylethanolamine circulating concentrations were lower in under-weight subjects. Olfactory TDI scores were lower in obese and morbidly obese subjects. Lower TDI scores were independently associated with higher 2-AG fasting plasma circulating concentrations, higher %body fat, and higher body mass index, after controllingfor age, smoking, menstruation, and use of contraceptives. Our results show that obese subjects have a lower olfactory capacity than non-obese ones and that elevated fasting plasma circulating 2-AG concentrations in obesity are linked to a lower olfactory capacity. In agreement with previous studies we show that eCBs AEA and 2-AG, and their respective congeners have a distinct profile in relation to body mass index. The present report is the first study in humans in which olfactory capacity and circulating eCB concentrations have been measured in the same subjects. © 2016 Pastor et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Tresserra-Rimbau A.,University of Barcelona | Medina-Remon A.,CIBER ISCIII | Medina-Remon A.,University of Barcelona | Lamuela-Raventos R.M.,University of Barcelona | And 24 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Previous studies on the association between alcohol intake and the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have yielded inconsistent results. Besides, few studies have analysed the effects of red wine (RW) consumption on the prevalence of the MetS and its components. As moderate RW drinkers have a better lipid profile and lower incidence rates of diabetes, hypertension and abdominal obesity, all components of the MetS, it was hypothesised that moderate RW consumption could be associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS. In the present cross-sectional study of 5801 elderly participants at a high cardiovascular risk included in the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, 3897 fulfilled the criteria of the MetS at baseline. RW intake was recorded using a validated 137-item FFQ. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to estimate the association between RW intake and the prevalence of the MetS. Compared with non-drinkers, moderate RW drinkers (≥ 1 drink/d) were found to have a reduced risk of prevalent MetS (OR 0·56, 95% CI 0·45, 0·68; P<0·001), a lower risk of having an abnormal waist circumference (OR 0·59, 95% CI 0·46, 0·77; P<0·001), low HDL-cholesterol concentrations (OR 0·42, 95% CI 0·32, 0·53; P<0·001), high blood pressure (OR 0·28, 95% CI 0·17, 0·45; P<0·001) and high fasting plasma glucose concentrations (OR 0·67, 95% CI 0·54, 0·82; P<0·001) after adjusting for several confounders. This association was found to be stronger in female participants, in participants aged <70 years and in participants who were former or current smokers. No significant association was found between RW intake (≥ 1 drink/d) and TAG concentrations. In conclusion, moderate RW consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS in an elderly Mediterranean population at a high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © The Authors 2015.

Diaz-Lopez A.,Rovira i Virgili University | Diaz-Lopez A.,CIBER ISCIII | Bullo M.,Rovira i Virgili University | Bullo M.,CIBER ISCIII | And 21 more authors.
Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background & aims: The aim was to examine the associations between macronutrient intake and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) or microalbuminuria (MiA) in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses conducted in 2123 nondiabetic individuals from the PREDIMED study. Dietary data were collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. Analysis of covariance was used to assess associations between quartiles of nutrient intake and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). The odds ratio (OR) for the presence of CKD or MiA according to quartiles of nutrient intake was assessed by logistic regression models. Results: Individuals in the highest quartile of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake showed lower average eGFR. Individuals in the top quartile of fiber intake had a decreased risk of CKD [OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.48-0.95]. Conversely, subjects in the highest quartile of n-6 PUFA intake showed an increased risk of CKD [OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.03-2.01]. No significant associations were found between the intake of other macronutrients and eGFR, urinary ACR or risk of CKD or MiA. Conclusions: A high fiber intake was associated with a decreased risk of CKD, while a high n-6 PUFA intake was inversely associated with eGFR and directly associated with an increased risk of CKD. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.

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