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Lisk C.,Cardiovascular Pulmonary Research Group | Kominsky D.,Mucosal Inflammation Research Group | Ehrentraut S.,Mucosal Inflammation Research Group | Bonaventura J.,Duke University | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

The release of hemoglobin (Hb) with hemolysis causes vascular dysfunction. New evidence implicates Hb-induced NF-κB and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) activation, which may be under the control of a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-signaling pathway. Nearly all TLR-signaling pathways activate the myeloid differentiation primary response gene-88 (MyD88) that regulates NF-κB. We hypothesized that the differing transition states of Hb influence endothelial cell permeability via NF-κB activation and HIF regulation through a MyD88-dependent pathway. In cultured human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs-1), we examined the effects of Hb in the ferrous (HbFe 2+), ferric (HbFe3+), and ferryl (HbFe4+) transition states on NF-κB and HIF activity, HIF-1α and HIF-2α mRNA upregulation, andmonolayerpermeability, in thepresenceorabsence of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB, or HIF inhibition, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Our data showed that cell-free Hb, in each transition state, induced NF-κB and HIF activity, up-regulated HIF-1α andHIF-2αmRNA, and increasedHMEC-1 permeability. The blockade of either MyD88 or NF-κB, but not TLR4, attenuated Hb-induced HIF activity, the up-regulation HIF-1 and HIF-2α mRNA, andHMEC-1 permeability. The inhibition of HIF activity exerted less of an effect on Hb-induced monolayer permeability. Moreover, SOD and catalase attenuated NF-κB, HIF activity, andmonolayer permeability.Our results demonstrate that Hb-induced NF-κB and HIF are regulated by two mechanisms, eitherMyD88 activation or Hb transition state-induced ROS formation, that influence HMEC-1 permeability. Copyright © 2013 by the American Thoracic Society. Source

Lisk C.,Cardiovascular Pulmonary Research Group | McCord J.,University of Colorado at Denver | Bose S.,University of Colorado at Denver | Sullivan T.,University of Colorado at Denver | And 5 more authors.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2013

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed during acute high altitude exposure contribute to cerebral vascular leak and development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates expression of greater than 90% of antioxidant genes, but prophylactic treatment with Nrf2 activators has not yet been tested as an AMS therapy. We hypothesized that prophylactic activation of the antioxidant genome with Nrf2 activators would attenuate high-altitude- induced ROS formation and cerebral vascular leak and that some drugs currently used to treat AMS symptoms have an additional trait of Nrf2 activation. Drugs commonly used to treat AMS were screened with a luciferase reporter cell system for their effectiveness to activate Nrf2, as well as being tested for their ability to decrease high altitude cerebral vascular leak in vivo. Compounds that showed favorable results for Nrf2 activation from our screen and attenuated high altitude cerebral vascular leak in vivo were further tested in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) to determine if they attenuated hypoxia-induced ROS production and monolayer permeability. Of nine drugs tested, with the exception of dexamethasone, only drugs that showed the ability to activate Nrf2 (Protandim, methazolamide, nifedipine, amlodipine, ambrisentan, and sitaxentan) decreased high-altitude-induced cerebral vascular leak in vivo. In vitro, Nrf2 activation in BMECs before 24 h hypoxia exposure attenuated hypoxic-induced hydrogen peroxide production and permeability. Prophylactic Nrf2 activation is effective at reducing brain vascular leak from acute high altitude exposures. Compared to acetazolamide, methazolamide may offer better protection against AMS. Nifedipine, in addition to its known vasodilatory activities in the lung and protection against high altitude pulmonary edema, may provide protection against brain vascular leak as well. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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