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West Haven, CT, United States

Zhang J.,Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging Laboratory | Silva T.,Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging Laboratory | Yarovinsky T.,Raymond and Beverly Sackler Foundation Cardiovascular Laboratory | Manes T.D.,Immunobiology | And 8 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2010

Rationale: There are conflicting data on the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in vascular remodeling. Furthermore, there are species-specific differences in leukocyte and vascular cell biology and little is known about the role of VEGF in remodeling of human arteries. Objective: We sought to address the role of VEGF blockade on remodeling of human arteries in vivo. Methods and Results: We used an anti-VEGF antibody, bevacizumab, to study the effect of VEGF blockade on remodeling of human coronary artery transplants in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Bevacizumab ameliorated peripheral blood mononuclear cell-induced but not interferon-γ-induced neointimal formation. This inhibitory effect was associated with a reduction in graft T-cell accumulation without affecting T-cell activation. VEGF enhanced T-cell capture by activated endothelium under flow conditions. The VEGF effect could be recapitulated when a combination of recombinant intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 rather than endothelial cells was used to capture T cells. A subpopulation of CD3+ T cells expressed VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1 by immunostaining and FACS analysis. VEGFR-1 mRNA was also detectable in purified CD4+ T cells and Jurkat and HSB-2 T-cell lines. Stimulation of HSB-2 and T cells with VEGF triggered downstream ERK phosphorylation, demonstrating the functionality of VEGFR-1 in human T cells. Conclusions: VEGF contributes to vascular remodeling in human arteries through a direct effect on human T cells that enhances their recruitment to the vessel. These findings raise the possibility of novel therapeutic approaches to vascular remodeling based on inhibition of VEGF signaling. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


Nie L.,Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging Laboratory | Nie L.,Yale University | Guo X.,Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging Laboratory | Guo X.,Yale University | And 19 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2013

Aberrant blood vessel formation contributes to a wide variety of pathologies, and factors that regulate angiogenesis are attractive therapeutic targets. Endothelial and smooth muscle cell-derived neuropilin-like protein (ESDN) is a neuropilin-related transmembrane protein expressed in ECs; however, its potential effect on VEGF responses remains undefined. Here, we generated global and EC-specific Esdn knockout mice and demonstrated that ESDN promotes VEGF-induced human and murine EC proliferation and migration. Deletion of Esdn in the mouse interfered with adult and developmental angiogenesis, and knockdown of the Esdn homolog (dcbld2) in zebrafish impaired normal vascular development. Loss of ESDN in ECs blunted VEGF responses in vivo and attenuated VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 signaling without altering VEGF receptor or neuropilin expression. Finally, we found that ESDN associates with VEGFR-2 and regulates its complex formation with negative regulators of VEGF signaling, protein tyrosine phosphatases PTP1B and TC-PTP, and VEcadherin. These findings establish ESDN as a regulator of VEGF responses in ECs that acts through a mechanism distinct from neuropilins. As such, ESDN may serve as a therapeutic target for angiogenesis regulation. Source

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