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Pittsburgh, PA, United States

Wong T.C.,Center for Quality | Wong T.C.,Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Center | Wong T.C.,Heart and Vascular Institute | Piehler K.,Center for Quality | And 24 more authors.

Background-Extracellular matrix expansion may be a fundamental feature of adverse myocardial remodeling, it appears to be treatable, and its measurement may improve risk stratification. Yet, the relationship between mortality and extracellular matrix is not clear because of difficulties with its measurement. To assess its relationship with outcomes, we used novel, validated cardiovascular magnetic resonance techniques to quantify the full spectrum of extracellular matrix expansion not readily detectable by conventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Methods and Results-We recruited 793 consecutive patients at the time of cardiovascular magnetic resonance without amyloidosis or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as well as 9 healthy volunteers (ages 20-50 years). We measured the extracellular volume fraction (ECV) to quantify the extracellular matrix expansion in myocardium without myocardial infarction. ECV uses gadolinium contrast as an extracellular space marker based on T1 measures of blood and myocardium pre-and post-gadolinium contrast and hematocrit measurement. In volunteers, ECV ranged from 21.7% to 26.2%, but in patients it ranged from 21.0% to 45.8%, indicating considerable burden. There were 39 deaths over a median follow-up of 0.8 years (interquartile range 0.5-1.2 years), and 43 individuals who experienced the composite end point of death/cardiac transplant/left ventricular assist device implantation. In Cox regression models, ECV related to all-cause mortality and the composite end point (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-1.88 and hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.78, respectively, for every 3% increase in ECV), adjusting for age, left ventricular ejection fraction, and myocardial infarction size. Conclusions-ECV measures of extracellular matrix expansion may predict mortality as well as other composite end points (death/cardiac transplant/left ventricular assist device implantation). © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Wong T.C.,University of Pittsburgh | Wong T.C.,Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Center | Wong T.C.,Heart and Vascular Institute | Piehler K.,Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Center | And 22 more authors.
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

Background: Echocardiography (echo) is a first line test to assess cardiac structure and function. It is not known if cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) ordered during routine clinical practice in selected patients can add additional prognostic information after routine echo. We assessed whether CMR improves outcomes prediction after contemporaneous echo, which may have implications for efforts to optimize processes of care, assess effectiveness, and allocate limited health care resources. Methods and results. We prospectively enrolled 1044 consecutive patients referred for CMR. There were 38 deaths and 3 cardiac transplants over a median follow-up of 1.0 years (IQR 0.4-1.5). We first reproduced previous survival curve strata (presence of LGE and ejection fraction (EF) < 50%) for transplant free survival, to support generalizability of any findings. Then, in a subset (n = 444) with contemporaneous echo (median 3 days apart, IQR 1-9), EF by echo (assessed visually) or CMR were modestly correlated (R§ssup§ 2§esup§ = 0.66, p < 0.001), and 30 deaths and 3 transplants occurred over a median follow-up of 0.83 years (IQR 0.29-1.40). CMR EF predicted mortality better than echo EF in univariable Cox models (Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI) 0.018, 95% CI 0.008-0.034; Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI) 0.51, 95% CI 0.11-0.85). Finally, LGE further improved prediction beyond EF as determined by hazard ratios, NRI, and IDI in all Cox models predicting mortality or transplant free survival, adjusting for age, gender, wall motion, and EF. Conclusions: Among those referred for CMR after echocardiography, CMR with LGE further improves risk stratification of individuals at risk for death or death/cardiac transplant. © 2013 Wong et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Wong T.C.,University of Pittsburgh | Wong T.C.,Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Center | Wong T.C.,Heart and Vascular Institute | Piehler K.M.,Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Center | And 19 more authors.
European Heart Journal

AimsDiabetes may promote myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM) expansion that increases vulnerability. We hypothesized that: (i) type 2 diabetes would be associated with quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) measures of myocardial ECM expansion, i.e. extracellular volume fraction (ECV); (ii) medications blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) would be associated with lower ECV; and (iii) ECV in diabetic individuals would be associated with mortality and/or incident hospitalization for heart failure.Methods and resultsWe enrolled 1176 consecutive patients referred for CMR without amyloidosis and computed ECV from measures of the haematocrit and myocardial and blood T1 pre- and post-contrast. Linear regression modelled ECV; Cox regression modelled mortality and/or hospitalization for heart failure. Diabetic individuals (n = 231) had higher median ECV than those without diabetes (n = 945): 30.2% (IQR: 26.9-32.7) vs. 28.1% (IQR: 25.9-31.0), respectively, P < 0.001). Diabetes remained associated with higher ECV in models adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and medications (P < 0.001). Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade was associated with lower ECV (P = 0.028) in multivariable linear models. Over a median of 1.3 years (IQR: 0.8-1.9), 38 diabetic individuals had events (21 incident hospitalizations for heart failure; 24 deaths), and ECV was associated with these events (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.21-1.89 per 3% ECV increase) in multivariable Cox regression models.ConclusionDiabetes is associated with increased ECV. Extracellular volume fraction detects amelioration of ECM expansion associated with RAAS blockade, and is associated with mortality and/or incident hospitalization for heart failure in diabetic individuals. Extracellular matrix expansion may be an important intermediate phenotype in diabetic individuals that is detectable and treatable. © The Author 2013. Source

Heitner J.,New York Methodist Hospital | Bhumireddy G.P.,New York Methodist Hospital | Crowley A.L.,Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Center | Weinsaft J.,Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Center | And 4 more authors.

Background: Detecting and quantifying the severity of mitral regurgitation is essential for risk stratification and clinical decision-making regarding timing of surgery. Our objective was to assess specific visual parameters by cine-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the determination of the severity of mitral regurgitation and to compare it to previously validated imaging modalities: echocardiography and cardiac ventriculography. Methods: The study population consisted of 68 patients who underwent a cardiac MRI followed by an echocardiogram within a median time of 2.0 days and 49 of these patients who had a cardiac catheterization, median time of 2.0 days. The inter-rater agreement statistic (Kappa) was used to evaluate the agreement. Results: There was moderate agreement between cine MRI and Doppler echocardiography in assessing mitral regurgitation severity, with a kappa value of 0.47, confidence interval (CI) 0.29-0.65. There was also fair agreement between cine MRI and cardiac catheterization with a kappa value of 0.36, CI of 0.17-0.55. Conclusion: Cine MRI offers a reasonable alternative to both Doppler echocardiography and, to a lesser extent, cardiac catheterization for visually assessing the severity of mitral regurgitation with specific visual parameters during routine clinical cardiac MRI. © 2012 Heitner et al. Source

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