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Caprio M.,Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology | Caprio M.,San Raffaele Rome Open University | Infante M.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Calanchini M.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 2 more authors.
Eating and Weight Disorders | Year: 2017

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin and a steroid hormone that plays a central role in maintaining calcium-phosphorus and bone homeostasis in close interaction with parathyroid hormone, acting on its classical target tissues, namely, bone, kidney, intestine, and parathyroid glands. However, vitamin D endocrine system regulates several genes (about 3 % of the human genome) involved in cell differentiation, cell-cycle control, and cell function and exerts noncalcemic/pleiotropic effects on extraskeletal target tissues, such as immune and cardiovascular system, pancreatic endocrine cells, muscle, and adipose tissue. Several studies have demonstrated the role of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention/treatment of various autoimmune diseases and improvement of glucose metabolism, muscle, and adipose tissue function. Hence, this review aims to elucidate the effects of vitamin D on extraskeletal target tissues and to investigate the potential therapeutic benefit of vitamin D supplementation among a broad group of pathological conditions, especially with regard to metabolic and autoimmune diseases. In addition, we focused on the best daily intakes and serum levels of vitamin D required for extraskeletal benefits which, even if still controversial, appear to be higher than those widely accepted for skeletal effects. © 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Armani A.,Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology | Marzolla V.,Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology | Fabbri A.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Caprio M.,Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology | Caprio M.,University San Raffaele
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology | Year: 2015

In addition to the well-documented expression and activity of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the kidney, in the last decade research on MR has also revealed its important role in regulating functions of extrarenal tissues, including adipose tissue, where MR is involved in adipocyte fundamental processes such as differentiation, autophagy and adipokine secretion. MR expression is increased in adipose tissue of murine models of obesity and in obese human subjects, suggesting that over-activation of the mineralocorticoid signaling leads to dysfunctional adipocyte and associated metabolic disorders. Notably, pharmacological blockade of MR prevents metabolic dysfunctions observed in obese mice and suggests a potential therapeutic use of MR antagonists in the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the molecular pathways affected by MR blockade have been poorly investigated. This review summarizes the functions of MR in the adipocyte, discusses potential signaling pathways mediating MR action, and describes post-translational modifications regulating its activity. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.


Marzolla V.,Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology | Armani A.,Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology | Feraco A.,Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology | De Martino M.U.,University of Salerno | And 3 more authors.
Steroids | Year: 2014

Aldosterone is the primary ligand for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and has been considered long time a "renal" hormone, acting at this site as a key regulator of plasma volume, electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure. A new exciting era of MR biology began with the identification of MR in different non-epithelial tissues such as brain, heart, vessels, macrophages/monocytes, and adipose tissue. The distribution of MR in such a wide range of tissues has suggested novel and unexpected roles for MR, for example in energy metabolism and inflammation. An increasing body of evidence suggests a detrimental effect of aldosterone excess on the development of metabolic alterations. Disturbances in glucose metabolism due to inappropriate activation of MR are frequently observed in patients with primary aldosteronism as well as in obese subjects. MR antagonists have beneficial effects on glucose tolerance and metabolic parameters in experimental animals, whereas their role in humans remains unclear. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology of MR activation in experimental models, particularly at the level of adipocytes and macrophages, to discuss novel and sometimes contrasting insights from emerging studies, and to highlight deficiencies in the field. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Vitiello L.,Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Immunology | Spoletini I.,Center for Clinical and Basic Research | Gorini S.,Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Immunology | Pontecorvo L.,Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Immunology | And 5 more authors.
IJC Metabolic and Endocrine | Year: 2014

Atherogenesis is the pathogenetic process leading to formation of the atheroma lesion. It is associated to a chronic inflammatory state initially stimulated by an aberrant accumulation of lipid molecules beyond the endothelial barrier. This event triggers a cascade of deleterious events mainly through immune cell stimulation with the consequent liberation of potent pro-inflammatory and tissue damaging mediators. The atherogenetic process implies marked modifications of endothelial cell functions and a radical change in the endothelial-leukocyte interaction pattern. Moreover, accumulating evidence shows an important link between microvascular and inflammatory responses and major cardiovascular risk factors. This review illustrates the current knowledge on the effects of obesity, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes on microcirculation; their pathophysiological implications will be discussed. © 2014 The Authors.


Mammi C.,Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology | Marzolla V.,Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology | Armani A.,Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology | Feraco A.,Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2016

Background:We have previously shown that antagonism of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) results in a potent antiadipogenic activity, in vitro and in vivo. Excessive glucocorticoid exposure is associated with obesity and related disorders in humans and mice.Methods:In this study, responses to a novel combined glucocorticoid receptor (GR)/MR antagonist were investigated in a model of diet-induced obesity. Female 10-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed with normal chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 9 weeks. Mice fed a HFD were concomitantly treated for 9 weeks with the GR antagonist mifepristone (80 mg kg -1 per day) or the novel combined GR/MR antagonist CORT118335 (80 mg kg -1 per day). Male, juvenile 6-week-old C57BL/6J mice fed HFD were treated with CORT118335 for 4 weeks.Results:Mice fed a HFD showed a significant increase in total body weight and white fat mass, with impaired glucose tolerance and increased fat infiltration in livers. Interestingly, only CORT118335 completely prevented the HFD-induced weight gain and white fat deposition, whereas mifepristone showed no effect on body weight and modestly increased subcutaneous fat mass. Importantly, food intake was not affected by either treatment, and CORT118335 dramatically increased PGC-1α protein expression in adipose tissue, without any effect on UCP1. Both CORT118335 and mifepristone produced metabolic benefit, improving glucose tolerance, increasing adiponectin plasma levels, decreasing leptin and reducing mean adipocyte size. When tested in vitro, CORT118335 markedly reduced 3T3-L1 differentiation and reversed MR-mediated pro-adipogenic effects of aldosterone; differently, GR-mediated effects of dexamethasone were not antagonized by CORT118335, suggesting that it mostly acts as an antagonist of MR in cultured preadipocytes.Conclusions:Combined GR/MR pharmacological antagonism markedly reduced HFD-driven weight gain and fat mass expansion in mice through the increase in adipose PGC-1α, suggesting that both receptors represent strategic therapeutic targets to fight obesity. The effects of CORT118335 in adipocytes seem predominantly mediated by MR antagonism.


PubMed | IRCCS MultiMedica, Partinico Hospital, Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, University of Palermo and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cardiovascular diabetology | Year: 2016

Liraglutide, a GLP-1 analogue, exerts several beneficial non-glycemic effects in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM), such as those on body weight, blood pressure, plasma lipids and inflammation markers. However, the effects of liraglutide on cardiovascular (CV) risk markers in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are still largely unknown. We herein explored its effects on various cardio-metabolic risk markers of the MetS in subjects with T2DM.We performed an 18-month prospective, real-world study. All subjects had T2DM and the MetS based on the AHA/NHLBI criteria. Subjects with a history of a major CV event were excluded. One hundred-twenty-one subjects (71 men and 50 women; mean age: 629years) with T2DM and the MetS, who were nave to incretin-based therapies and treated with metformin only, were included. Liraglutide (1.2mg/day) was added to metformin (1500-3000mg/day) for the entire study. Fasting plasma samples for metabolic parameters were collected and carotid-intima media thickness (cIMT) was assessed by B-mode real-time ultrasound at baseline and every 6months thereafter.There was a significant reduction in waist circumference, body mass index, fasting glycemia, HbA1c, total- and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and cIMT during the 18-month follow-up. Correlation analysis showed a significant association between changes in cIMT and triglycerides (r=0.362; p<0.0001). The MetS prevalence significantly reduced during the study, and the 26% of subjects no longer fulfilled the criteria for the MetS after 18months.Liraglutide improves cardio-metabolic risk factors in subjects with the MetS in a real-world study. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01715428.


PubMed | Laboratory of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, Corcept Therapeutics, Jagiellonian University and University of Rome Tor Vergata
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of obesity (2005) | Year: 2016

We have previously shown that antagonism of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) results in a potent antiadipogenic activity, in vitro and in vivo. Excessive glucocorticoid exposure is associated with obesity and related disorders in humans and mice.In this study, responses to a novel combined glucocorticoid receptor (GR)/MR antagonist were investigated in a model of diet-induced obesity. Female 10-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed with normal chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 9 weeks. Mice fed a HFD were concomitantly treated for 9 weeks with the GR antagonist mifepristone (80mgkg(-1) per day) or the novel combined GR/MR antagonist CORT118335 (80mgkg(-1) per day). Male, juvenile 6-week-old C57BL/6J mice fed HFD were treated with CORT118335 for 4 weeks.Mice fed a HFD showed a significant increase in total body weight and white fat mass, with impaired glucose tolerance and increased fat infiltration in livers. Interestingly, only CORT118335 completely prevented the HFD-induced weight gain and white fat deposition, whereas mifepristone showed no effect on body weight and modestly increased subcutaneous fat mass. Importantly, food intake was not affected by either treatment, and CORT118335 dramatically increased PGC-1 protein expression in adipose tissue, without any effect on UCP1. Both CORT118335 and mifepristone produced metabolic benefit, improving glucose tolerance, increasing adiponectin plasma levels, decreasing leptin and reducing mean adipocyte size. When tested in vitro, CORT118335 markedly reduced 3T3-L1 differentiation and reversed MR-mediated pro-adipogenic effects of aldosterone; differently, GR-mediated effects of dexamethasone were not antagonized by CORT118335, suggesting that it mostly acts as an antagonist of MR in cultured preadipocytes.Combined GR/MR pharmacological antagonism markedly reduced HFD-driven weight gain and fat mass expansion in mice through the increase in adipose PGC-1, suggesting that both receptors represent strategic therapeutic targets to fight obesity. The effects of CORT118335 in adipocytes seem predominantly mediated by MR antagonism.


Background:We have previously shown that antagonism of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) results in a potent antiadipogenic activity, in vitro and in vivo. Excessive glucocorticoid exposure is associated with obesity and related disorders in humans and mice.Methods:In this study, responses to a novel combined glucocorticoid receptor (GR)/MR antagonist were investigated in a model of diet-induced obesity. Female 10-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed with normal chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 9 weeks. Mice fed a HFD were concomitantly treated for 9 weeks with the GR antagonist mifepristone (80 mg kg-1 per day) or the novel combined GR/MR antagonist CORT118335 (80 mg kg-1 per day). Male, juvenile 6-week-old C57BL/6J mice fed HFD were treated with CORT118335 for 4 weeks.Results:Mice fed a HFD showed a significant increase in total body weight and white fat mass, with impaired glucose tolerance and increased fat infiltration in livers. Interestingly, only CORT118335 completely prevented the HFD-induced weight gain and white fat deposition, whereas mifepristone showed no effect on body weight and modestly increased subcutaneous fat mass. Importantly, food intake was not affected by either treatment, and CORT118335 dramatically increased PGC-1α protein expression in adipose tissue, without any effect on UCP1. Both CORT118335 and mifepristone produced metabolic benefit, improving glucose tolerance, increasing adiponectin plasma levels, decreasing leptin and reducing mean adipocyte size. When tested in vitro, CORT118335 markedly reduced 3T3-L1 differentiation and reversed MR-mediated pro-adipogenic effects of aldosterone; differently, GR-mediated effects of dexamethasone were not antagonized by CORT118335, suggesting that it mostly acts as an antagonist of MR in cultured preadipocytes.Conclusions:Combined GR/MR pharmacological antagonism markedly reduced HFD-driven weight gain and fat mass expansion in mice through the increase in adipose PGC-1α, suggesting that both receptors represent strategic therapeutic targets to fight obesity. The effects of CORT118335 in adipocytes seem predominantly mediated by MR antagonism.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 22 March 2016; doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.13. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited

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