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Reis J.P.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Loria C.M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Steffen L.M.,University of Minnesota | Zhou X.,University of Minnesota | And 5 more authors.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

Objective-: To determine the association of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, caffeine, and tea consumption in young adulthood with the presence and progression of coronary artery calcified (CAC) plaque and carotid intima-media thickness later in life. Methods and results-: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study is a cohort of 5115 white and black adults who were aged 18 to 30 years when they completed a baseline clinic examination from 1985 to 1986. Subsequent examinations were conducted 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 years later. After multivariable adjustment, no association was observed between average coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or caffeine consumption (years 0 and 7) and presence of CAC (score, >0 Agatston units at year 15 or 20), CAC progression (incident CAC at year 20 or increase in CAC score by ≥20 Agatston units), or high carotid intima-media thickness (>80th percentile, year 20). However, tea consumption displayed a nonsignificant trend for an inverse association with CAC (P=0.08 for trend) and an inverse association with CAC progression (P=0.04 for trend) but no association with high carotid intima-media thickness (P>0.20 for trend). Stratification of the coffee analyses by sex, race, or smoking yielded similar nonsignificant patterns. Conclusion-: We observed no substantial association between coffee or caffeine intake and coronary and carotid atherosclerosis. However, our results suggested an inverse association between tea and CAC but not carotid atherosclerosis. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Psaty B.M.,Cardiovascular Health Research Unit | Psaty B.M.,University of Washington | Curtis L.H.,Duke University | Heckbert S.R.,University of Washington | And 3 more authors.

Background - Increasingly, the diagnostic codes from administrative claims data are being used as clinical outcomes. Methods and Results - Data from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) were used to compare event rates and risk factor associations between adjudicated hospitalized cardiovascular events and claims-based methods of defining events. The outcomes of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and heart failure were defined in 3 ways: the CHS adjudicated event (CHS[adj]), selected International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition diagnostic codes only in the primary position for Medicare claims data from the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS[1st]), and the same selected diagnostic codes in any position (CMS[any]). Conventional claims-based methods of defining events had high positive predictive values but low sensitivities. For instance, the positive predictive value of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition code 410.x1 for a new acute MI in the first position was 90.6%, but this code identified only 53.8% of incident MIs. The observed event rates for CMS[1st] were low. For MI, the incidence was 14.9 events per 1000 person-years for CHS[adj] MI, 8.6 for CMS[1st] MI, and 12.2 for CMS[any] MI. In general, cardiovascular disease risk factor associations were similar across the 3 methods of defining events. Indeed, traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors were also associated with all first hospitalizations not resulting from an MI. Conclusions - The use of diagnostic codes from claims data as clinical events, especially when restricted to primary diagnoses, leads to an underestimation of event rates. Additionally, claims-based events data represent a composite end point that includes the outcome of interest and selected (misclassified) nonevent hospitalizations. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Mathew J.S.,959 NE Pacific St | Patton K.K.,959 NE Pacific St | Heckbert S.R.,Cardiovascular Health Research Unit | Hoofnagle A.N.,University of Washington | And 5 more authors.

BACKGROUND - : Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is a hormone that promotes urinary phosphate excretion and regulates vitamin D metabolism. Circulating FGF-23 concentrations increase markedly in chronic kidney disease and are associated with increased risk of clinical cardiovascular events. FGF-23 may promote atrial fibrillation (AF) by inducing left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic and left atrial dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS - : We tested the associations of circulating FGF-23 concentration with incident AF among 6398 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and 1350 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), all free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline. Over a median of 7.7 and 8.0 years of follow-up, we observed 291 and 229 incident AF events in MESA and CHS, respectively. In multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, each 2-fold-higher FGF-23 concentration was associated with a 41% higher risk of incident AF in MESA (hazard ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.76; P=0.003) and a 30% higher risk of incident AF in CHS (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.61; P=0.016) after adjustment for potential confounding characteristics, including kidney disease. Serum phosphate concentration was significantly associated with incident AF in MESA (hazard ratio, 1.15 per 0.5 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.31; P=0.023) but not CHS. In MESA, an association of low estimated glomerular filtration rate with incident AF was partially attenuated by adjustment for FGF-23. CONCLUSION - : Higher circulating FGF-23 concentration is associated with incident AF and may, in part, explain the link between chronic kidney disease and AF. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Yeboah J.,Heart Health | Polonsky T.S.,University of Chicago | Young R.,Cardiovascular Health Research Unit | McClelland R.L.,Cardiovascular Health Research Unit | And 12 more authors.

Background-In the general population, the majority of cardiovascular events occur in people at the low to moderate end of population risk distribution. The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol recommends consideration of statin therapy for adults with an estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk ≥7.5% based on traditional risk factors. Whether use of nontraditional risk markers can improve risk assessment in those below this threshold for statin therapy is unclear. Methods and Results-Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a population sample free of clinical CVD at baseline, we calibrated the Pooled Cohort Equations (cPCE). ASCVD was defined as myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease death, or fatal or nonfatal stroke. Adults with an initial cPCE <7.5% and elevated levels of additional risk markers (abnormal test) whose new calculated risk was ≥7.5% were considered statin eligible: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥160 mg/dL; family history of ASCVD; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥2 mg/dL; coronary artery calcium score ≥300 Agatston units or ≥75th percentile for age, sex, and ethnicity; and ankle-brachial index <0.9. We compared the absolute and relative ASCVD risks among those with versus without elevated posttest estimated risk. We calculated the number needed to screen to identify 1 person with abnormal test for each risk marker, defined as the number of participants with baseline cPCE risk <7.5% divided by the number with an abnormal test reclassified as statin eligible. Of 5185 participants not taking statins with complete data (age, 45-84 years), 4185 had a cPCE risk <7.5%. During 10 years of follow-up, 57% of the ASCVD events (183 of 320) occurred among adults with a cPCE risk <7.5%. When people with diabetes mellitus were excluded, the coronary artery calcium criterion reclassified 6.8% upward, with an event rate of 13.3%, absolute risk of 10%, relative risk of 4.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-5.7), and number needed to screen of 14.7. The corresponding numbers for family history of ASCVD were 4.6%, 15.1%, 12%, 4.3 (95% CI, 3.0-6.4), and 21.8; for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein criteria, 2.6%, 10%, 6%, 2.6 (95% CI, 1.4-4.8), and 39.2; for ankle-brachial index criteria, 0.6%, 9%, 5%, 2.3 (95% CI, 0.6-8.6), and 176.5; and for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol criteria, 0.5%, 5%, 1%, 1.2 (95% CI, 0.2-8.4), and 193.3, respectively. Of the 3882 with <7.5% cPCE risk, 431 (11.1%) were reclassified to ≥7.5% (statin eligible) by at least 1 of the additional risk marker criteria. Conclusions-In this generally low-risk population sample, a large proportion of ASCVD events occurred among adults with a 10-year cPCE risk <7.5%. We found that the coronary artery calcium score, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, family history of ASCVD, and ankle-brachial index recommendations by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines (Class IIB) identify small subgroups of asymptomatic population with a 10-year cPCE risk <7.5% but with observed ASCVD event rates >7.5% who may warrant statin therapy considerations. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Mozaffarian D.,Harvard University | Lemaitre R.N.,Cardiovascular Health Research Unit | King I.B.,University of New Mexico | Song X.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Internal Medicine

Background: Long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5ω-3), docosa-pentaenoic acid (DPA) (22:5ω-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6ω-3), have been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk, but effects on cause-specific and total mortality and potential dose-responses remain controversial. Most observational studies have assessed self-reported dietary intake and most randomized trials have tested effects of adding supplements to dietary intake and evaluated secondary prevention, thus limiting inference for dietary ω3-PUFAs or primary prevention. Objective: To investigate associations of plasma phospholipid EPA, DPA, DHA, and total ω3-PUFA levels with total and cause-specific mortality among healthy older adults not receiving supplements. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: 4 U.S. communities. Participants: 2692 U.S. adults aged 74 years (±5 years) without prevalent coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, or heart failure at baseline. Measurements: Phospholipid fatty acid levels and cardiovascular risk factors were measured in 1992. Relationships with total and cause-specific mortality and incident fatal or nonfatal CHD and stroke through 2008 were assessed. Results: During 30 829 person-years, 1625 deaths (including 570 cardiovascular deaths), 359 fatal and 371 nonfatal CHD events, and 130 fatal and 276 nonfatal strokes occurred. After adjustment, higher plasma levels of ω3-PUFA biomarkers were associated with lower total mortality, with extreme-quintile hazard ratios of 0.83 for EPA (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.98; P for trend = 0.005), 0.77 for DPA (CI, 0.66 to 0.90; P for trend = 0.008), 0.80 for DHA (CI, 0.67 to 0.94; P for trend = 0.006), and 0.73 for total ω3-PUFAs (CI, 0.61 to 0.86; P for trend < 0.001). Lower risk was largely attributable to fewer cardiovascular than noncardiovascular deaths. Individuals in the highest quintile of phospholipid ω3-PUFA level lived an average of 2.22 more years (CI, 0.75 to 3.13 years) after age 65 years than did those in the lowest quintile. Limitation: Temporal changes in fatty acid levels and misclassifica-tion of causes of death may have resulted in underestimated asso-ciations, and unmeasured or imperfectly measured covariates may have caused residual confounding. Conclusion: Higher circulating individual and total ω3-PUFA levels are associated with lower total mortality, especially CHD death, in older adults. Primary Funding Source: National Institutes of Health. © 2013 American College of Physicians. Source

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