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Villarejo A.B.,University of Jaen | Prieto I.,University of Jaen | Segarra A.B.,University of Jaen | Banegas I.,University of Jaen | And 4 more authors.
Hormone and Metabolic Research | Year: 2014

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), vasopressin, and nitric oxide (NO) interact to regulate blood pressure at central and peripheral level. To improve our understanding of their interaction and their relationship with the hypothalamus and the cardiovascular system, we analyzed angiotensin- and vasopressin-metabolizing activities in hypothalamus (HT), left ventricle (LV), and plasma, collected from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) treated or not with L-NAME [N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester], which inhibits the formation of NO and over-activates the sympathetic nervous system. Previous observations in WKY suggested higher formation of Ang III and Ang IV in the HT and higher availability of Ang II in plasma after L-NAME treatment. Our current results show higher formation of Ang IV and higher metabolism of vasopressin after treatment with L-NAME in the LV of WKY rats. In SHR treated with L-NAME, there is higher availability of Ang III in the HT leading to higher release of vasopressin together with lower formation of Ang 2-10. In their LV, however, there is an increase of vasopressinase. Interestingly, while the enzymatic activities in the HT and LV of WKY rats and control SHR are poorly correlated, they are well but inversely correlated in the L-NAME treated SHR. On the other hand, no significant correlations between enzymatic activities in HT or LV and plasma were noticed. Our results suggest that eNOS inhibition in SHR induces or enhances an inverse reciprocal interaction between HT and LV involving the RAS and vasopressin, which may be mediated by the autonomic nervous system. Source


Prieto I.,University of Jaen | Villarejo A.B.,University of Jaen | Segarra A.B.,University of Jaen | Banegas I.,University of Jaen | And 5 more authors.
Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2014

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in the control of blood pressure (BP) and water balance by coordinating brain, heart and kidney functions, connected with each other by hormonal and neural mechanisms through the autonomic nervous system (ANS). RAS function may be monitored by the study of the enzymes (angiotensinases) involved in the metabolism of its active peptides. In order to study the relationship between the brain-heart-kidney axis and the control of BP and water balance, we analyzed the correlation of angiotensinase activities, assayed as arylamidase activities, between hypothalamus, left ventricle, renal cortex and renal medulla, collected from Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats, treated or not treated with L-NAME [N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester]. This compound not only inhibits the formation of nitric oxide but also disrupts the normal function of the ANS activating the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to increase BP. In addition, to assess the influence of the SNS, we studied the effect of its blockade by treatment of both strains with propranolol. The present results support the notion that RAS function of the brain-heart-kidney axis, as reflected by the activities of angiotensinases, is reciprocally connected by afferent and efferent mechanisms between these locations, presumably through the ANS. These results reveal new aspects of neuroendocrine regulation possibly involving the ANS. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Ramirez-Sanchez M.,University of Jaen | Prieto I.,University of Jaen | Wangensteen R.,University of Jaen | Banegas I.,University of Jaen | And 5 more authors.
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

Although the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is already an old acquaintance, there are often exciting discoveries that improve our knowledge of it and open new therapeutic possibilities. Moreover, well-established drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), or beta-blockers, show that their mechanism of action may be the result of parallel pathways other than the ones initially established. A detailed analysis of the RAS can be carried out in part through the study of the enzymes, named angiotensinases, involved in its cascade, whose activity is a reflection of the functionality of their peptide substrates. The study of these enzymes offers the possibility of controlling the effects of angiotensins through various pharmacological manipulations. For example, angiotensinase inhibitors or activators are being used or have been proposed as antihypertensive agents. They have also been suggested as analgesic and antidepressant drugs or targets for drug development against different pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy or ischemia. On the other hand, the analysis of brain asymmetry has revealed surprising results about the laterality of central and peripheral components of the RAS. Such studies indicate that the neurovisceral integration, already proposed by Claude Bernard (1867) should also be analyzed from a bilateral perspective. In this review, the RAS and the role of various angiotensinases implicated in the cascade are revisited. Therapeutic strategies involving some components of the RAS with an unusual vision resulting from a bilateral perspective added to their study are discussed. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers. Source


Prieto I.,University of Jaen | Villarejo A.B.,University of Jaen | Segarra A.B.,University of Jaen | Wangensteen R.,University of Jaen | And 6 more authors.
Life Sciences | Year: 2015

Aims: To better understand the functional role of soluble (Sol) and membrane-bound (MB) cystinyl-aminopeptidase (CysAP) activities, we studied differentially their organ distribution in adult male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with or without treatment with captopril. We searched for a possible tissue-specific association of CysAP with water balance and blood pressure. Main methods: We used twenty WKY rats distributed in ten controls and ten captopril-treated, and sixteen SHR divided in eight controls and eight captopril-treated. Captopril (100 mg/kg/day) was administered in drinking water for 4 weeks. Systolic blood pressure, water intake and diuresis were measured individually. CysAP was assayed fluorometrically using L-cystine-di-β-naphthylamide as substrate. Key findings: Sol or MB activities were generally higher in SHR compared to WKY notably in hypothalamus and kidney than in the other tissues. Captopril mainly decreased CysAP in SHR whereas it increased in WKY. The distribution of Sol CysAP was more homogeneous among tissues of WKY than SHR. In contrast, the distribution of MB CysAP was more heterogeneous than Sol CysAP in both WKY and SHR. This suggests that MB CysAP activity acts in a more tissue-specific manner than Sol CysAP. The majority of the significant correlations between tissue activities and the measured physiological parameters were observed mostly in renal medulla and hypothalamus. Significance: Sol and MB CysAP activities, acting separately or in concert and mainly in renal medulla, regulate the function of their susceptible endogenous substrates, and may participate meaningfully in the control of blood pressure and fluid balance. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Segarra A.B.,University of Jaen | Prieto I.,University of Jaen | Villarejo A.B.,University of Jaen | Banegas I.,University of Jaen | And 4 more authors.
Hormone and Metabolic Research | Year: 2013

Sexual dysfunction is a frequent adverse effect during antihypertensive therapy. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects are not well understood. The renin-angiotensin system has been identified in testis where it may play a role in testicular function and be involved in the detrimental effects of antihypertensive drugs. Therefore, our objective was to compare the influence of captopril and propranolol on plasma testosterone levels and on hydrolyzing angiotensin's enzymes (angiotensinases) in the testis of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and in control animals. Twenty-four adult male SHRs were used in this study; eight were treated with captopril in drinking water, 8 with propranolol, and 8 were controls. At the end of the 4 weeks treatment period, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was recorded, blood samples were collected, and the right testis was dissected after perfusion of the rat with saline. The soluble (Sol) and membrane-bound (MB) fractions were obtained after solubilization and ultracentrifugation. Fluorometric measurement of Sol and MB angiotensinase activities were performed using arylamide derivatives as substrates. Testosterone was measured by enzyme immunoassay. SBP decreased after captopril but did not change with propranolol treatment. Whereas captopril did not affect angiotensinase activities, highly significant reductions in Sol and MB angiotensinase activities, particularly glutamyl- and aspartyl-aminopeptidases, were observed after treatment with propranolol. Plasma testosterone decreased in captopril treated rats but propranolol had a greater effect. The present results support a general functional depression of the RAS cascade in the testis of propranolol-treated SHR, which may influence the sexual function of these animals. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York. Source

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