Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center

Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center

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Lee S.,Inje University | Shin J.,Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center | Lee M.,Inje University | Hong Y.,Inje University | And 8 more authors.
Neural Regeneration Research | Year: 2012

Previous studies have demonstrated that melatonin combined with exercise can alleviate secondary damage after spinal cord injury in rats. Therefore, it is hypothesized that melatonin combined with exercise can also alleviate ischemic brain damage. In this study, adult rats were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion after receiving 10 mg/kg melatonin or vehicle subcutaneously twice daily for 14 days. Forced exercise using an animal treadmill was performed at 20 m/min for 30 minutes per day for 6 days prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion. After middle cerebral artery occlusion, each rat received melatonin combined with exercise, melatonin or exercise alone equally for 7 days until sacrifice. Interestingly, rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise exhibited more severe neurological deficits than those receiving melatonin or exercise alone. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α mRNA in the brain tissue was upregulated in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise. Similarly, microtubule associated protein-2 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in rats receiving melatonin alone. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (NG2) mRNA expression was significantly decreased in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise as well as in rats receiving exercise alone. Furthermore, neural cell loss in the primary motor cortex was significantly reduced in rats receiving melatonin or exercise alone, but the change was not observed in rats receiving melatonin combined with exercise. These findings suggest that excessive intervention with melatonin, exercise or their combination may lead to negative effects on ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain damage.

Kim T.N.,Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center | Lee E.J.,Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center | Hong J.W.,Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center | Kim J.M.,Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center | And 6 more authors.
Medicine | Year: 2016

Studies have shown that albuminuria, obesity, and sarcopenia may share pathophysiological processes related to cardiovascular disease risk. Their direct relationships, however, have not been examined. This study investigated the association between albuminuria and sarcopenia in a representative fraction of the Korean population.Of the 10,589 people who participated in the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2158 participants aged over 19 years had been tested for albumin-to-creatinine ratio and for body composition data using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Albuminuria was defined as an albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. Sarcopenia was defined as a skeletal muscle index (SMI) (SMI (%) = total appendicular skeletal muscle mass [kg]/weight [kg] × 100) of less than 1 standard deviation (SD) (grade 1) or 2 SD (grade 2) below the sex-specific mean for a younger reference group.The prevalence of albuminuria was higher in those with grade 2 sarcopenia than in those with a normal SMI or grade 1 sarcopenia (33.3% versus 8.4% and 8.9%; P < 0.001). Conversely, grade 2 sarcopenia was also more prevalent in participants with albuminuria than in those with the upper tertile of normoalbuminuria. In addition, multiple logistic regression analysis showed the odds ratio for albuminuria risk in the grade 2 sarcopenia group was 2.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-5.88), compared with normal SMI after adjusting for potential confounding factors, including the presence of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Moreover, individuals with albuminuria had an odds ratio of 3.39 (95% [confidence interval], 1.38-8.37) for grade 2 sarcopenia compared with those in the lowest tertile of normoalbuminuria.This is the first study to demonstrate that individuals with sarcopenia exhibited increased risk of albuminuria and vice versa.

Lee S.R.,Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center | Lee S.R.,Inje University | Kwak J.H.,Sungkyunkwan University | Noh S.J.,Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center | And 12 more authors.
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin | Year: 2014

Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) releases nitric oxide (NO), a powerful vasodilator, and thus widely used in intensive care unit for treating hypertension emergency. However, cardiac toxicity after SNP administration is a clinical problem. For finding a natural compound that suppressing SNP-induced cardiac toxicity, we tested the protective potential of kobophenol A (Kob A), purified from the root of Caragana sinica, against the toxic effects of SNP. The severe cardiac H9c2 cell death was induced by SNP (2 mM) treatment. Kob A ameliorated SNP-induced cardiac H9c2 cell death, and this protective effect of Kob A may be related to the inhibition of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation following SNP administration. In addition, the downregulation of cellular Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 levels by SNP exposure was strongly abrogated in the presence of Kob A. These biological properties of Kob A might provide insights into developing new cardioprotectant against SNP-induced cardiac cell death. © 2014 The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.

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