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Rochester, MN, United States

Systemic hypertension is a common characteristic in acute heart failure (HF). This increasingly recognized phenotype is commonly associated with renal dysfunction and there is an unmet need for renal enhancing therapies. In a canine model of HF and acute vasoconstrictive hypertension we characterized and compared the cardiorenal actions of M-atrial natriuretic peptide (M-ANP), a novel particulate guanylyl cyclase (pGC) activator, and nitroglycerin, a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activator. HF was induced by rapid RV pacing (180 beats per minute) for 10 days. On day 11, hypertension was induced by continuous angiotensin II infusion. We characterized the cardiorenal and humoral actions prior to, during, and following intravenous M-ANP (n=7), nitroglycerin (n=7), and vehicle (n=7) infusion. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was reduced by M-ANP (139 ± 4 to 118 ± 3 mm Hg, P<0.05) and nitroglycerin (137 ± 3 to 116 ± 4 mm Hg, P<0.05); similar findings were recorded for pulmonary wedge pressure (PCWP) with M-ANP (12 ± 2 to 6 ± 2 mm Hg, P<0.05) and nitroglycerin (12 ± 1 to 6 ± 1 mm Hg, P<0.05). M-ANP enhanced renal function with significant increases (P<0.05) in glomerular filtration rate (38 ± 4 to 53 ± 5 mL/min), renal blood flow (132 ± 18 to 236 ± 23 mL/min), and natriuresis (11 ± 4 to 689 ± 37 mEq/min) and also inhibited aldosterone activation (32 ± 3 to 23 ± 2 ng/dL, P<0.05), whereas nitroglycerin had no significant (P>0.05) effects on these renal parameters or aldosterone activation. Our results advance the differential cardiorenal actions of pGC (M-ANP) and sGC (nitroglycerin) mediated cGMP activation. These distinct renal and aldosterone modulating actions make M-ANP an attractive therapeutic for HF with concomitant hypertension, where renal protection is a key therapeutic goal. Source

McKie P.M.,Cardiorenal Research Laboratory | Burnett J.C.,Cardiorenal Research Laboratory
Current Heart Failure Reports | Year: 2015

The natriuretic peptide system (NPS) is intimately involved in cardiorenal homeostasis in health, and dysregulation of the NPS plays an important role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). Indeed, the diuretic, vasorelaxation, beneficial remodeling, and potent neurohumoral inhibition of the NPS support the therapeutic development of chronic augmentation of the NPS in symptomatic HF. Further, chronic augmentation of the protective NPS and in early stages of HF may ultimately prevent the progression of HF and reduced subsequent morbidity and mortality. In the current manuscript, we review the rationale for as well as previous and current efforts aimed at chronic therapeutic augmentation of the NPS in HF. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

McKie P.M.,Mayo Medical School | Ichiki T.,Cardiorenal Research Laboratory | Burnett Jr. J.C.,Cardiorenal Research Laboratory
Current Hypertension Reports | Year: 2012

The natriuretic peptides, specifically atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), are increasingly recognized to play a fundamental role in blood pressure (BP) regulation. This role in BP regulation reflects the pluripotent cardiorenal actions of ANP, which include diuresis, enhancement of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate, systemic vasodilatation, suppression of aldosterone, and inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system. These actions of ANP, in addition to recent human studies demonstrating an association of higher plasma ANP with lower risk of hypertension, support the development of an ANP-based therapy for hypertension. M-ANP is a novel ANP-based peptide that is resistant to proteolytic degradation and possesses greater BP-lowering, renal function-enhancing, and aldosterone-suppressing properties than native ANP. In an animal model of hypertension, M-ANP lowers BP via multiple mechanisms, including vasodilatation, diuresis, and inhibition of aldosterone. Importantly, M-ANP enhances both glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow despite reductions in BP. The pluripotent BP-lowering actions and concomitant enhancement of renal function associated with M-ANP are highly attractive characteristics for an antihypertensive agent and underscore the therapeutic potential of M-ANP. M-ANP currently is heading into clinical testing, which may advance this novel strategy for human hypertension. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Gruson D.,Catholic University of Louvain | Buglioni A.,Cardiorenal Research Laboratory | Burnett J.C.,Cardiorenal Research Laboratory
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2014

Biomarkers play an important role for the diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure (HF), a disease with high morbidity and mortality as well as a huge impact on healthcare budgets. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a major systemic calcium-regulating hormone and an important regulator of bone and mineral homeostasis. PTH testing is important for differential diagnosis of calcemia related disorders and for the management of patients with chronic kidney disease. As secondary hyperparathyroidism has been evidenced in HF patients, PTH testing might be relevant in HF patients for risk stratification and more personalized selection of treatment. © 2014. Source

Ichiki T.,Cardiorenal Research Laboratory | Huntley B.K.,Cardiorenal Research Laboratory | Burnett J.C.,Cardiorenal Research Laboratory
Advances in Clinical Chemistry | Year: 2013

The cardiac hormone, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), is one of human natriuretic peptides which possesses cardiorenal protective actions and is used as a therapeutic and a biomarker for heart failure (HF). Its prohormone, proBNP1-108, is processed by the proNPs convertases, corin or furin, to inactive NT-proBNP1-76 and active BNP1-32. Paradoxically, circulating NT-proBNP and BNP are elevated in HF leading to the use of BNP as a sensitive and predictive marker of HF. This paradox may be explained by the "nonspecific" nature of conventional assays and/or a relative deficiency state of "active BNP" as characterized by an increase in inactive proBNP1-108 and a decrease in active BNP1-32. Therefore, understanding the regulation of proBNP1-108 processing and the role of the convertase corin may be important in understanding the physiology of HF. Corin is expressed in heart and kidney and may play an important role in regulating blood pressure and remodeling of the heart. The processing of proBNP1-108 by corin may be controlled by O-linked glycosylation of proBNP1-108. A potential impairment of proBNP1-108 processing in HF may be linked to dysregulation of the convertase corin, which may offer therapeutic opportunities to control proBNP1-108 processing and its activation in HF. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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