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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Pakradouni J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Pakradouni J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Pakradouni J.,SISENE SAS | Le Goff W.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 32 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objective:Evidence points to a founder of the multifunctional CCN family, NOV/CCN3, as a circulating molecule involved in cardiac development, vascular homeostasis and inflammation. No data are available on the relationship between plasma NOV/CCN3 levels and cardiovascular risk factors in humans. This study investigated the possible relationship between plasma NOV levels and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.Methods:NOV levels were measured in the plasma from 594 adults with a hyperlipidemia history and/or with lipid-lowering therapy and/or a body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2. Correlations were measured between NOV plasma levels and various parameters, including BMI, fat mass, and plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, and C-reactive protein. NOV expression was also evaluated in adipose tissue from obese patients and rodents and in primary cultures of adipocytes and macrophages.Results:After full multivariate adjustment, we detected a strong positive correlation between plasma NOV and BMI (r = 0.36 p<0.0001) and fat mass (r = 0.33 p<0.0005). According to quintiles, this relationship appeared to be linear. NOV levels were also positively correlated with C-reactive protein but not with total cholesterol, LDL-C or blood glucose. In patients with drastic weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y bariatric surgery, circulating NOV levels decreased by 28% (p<0.02) and 48% (p<0.0001) after 3 and 6 months, respectively, following surgery. In adipose tissue from obese patients, and in human primary cultures NOV protein was detected in adipocytes and macrophages. In mice fed a high fat diet NOV plasma levels and its expression in adipose tissue were also significantly increased compared to controls fed a standard diet.Conclusion:Our results strongly suggest that in obese humans and mice plasma NOV levels positively correlated with NOV expression in adipose tissue, and support a possible contribution of NOV to obesity-related inflammation. © 2013 Pakradouni et al.

Pellegrinelli V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Pellegrinelli V.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Rouault C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Rouault C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 11 more authors.
Diabetes | Year: 2014

During obesity, chronic inflammation of human white adipose tissue (WAT) is associated with metabolic and vascular alterations. Endothelial cells from visceral WAT (VAT-ECs) exhibit a proinflammatory and senescent phenotype and could alter adipocyte functions. We aimed to determine the contribution of VAT-ECs to adipocyte dysfunction related to inflammation and to rescue these alterations by antiinflammatory strategies. We developed an original three-dimensional setting allowing maintenance of unilocular adipocyte functions. Coculture experiments demonstrated that VAT-ECs provoked a decrease in the lipolytic activity, adipokine secretion, and insulin sensitivity of adipocytes from obese subjects, as well as an increased production of several inflammatory molecules. Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1b were identified as potential actors in these adipocyte alterations. The inflammatory burst was not observed in cocultured cells from lean subjects. Interestingly, pericytes, in functional interactions with ECs, exhibited a proinflammatory phenotype with diminished angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) secretion in WAT from obese subjects. Using the anti-inflammatory Ang-1, we corrected some deleterious effects of WAT-ECs on adipocytes, improving lipolytic activity and insulin sensitivity and reducing the secretion of proinflammatory molecules. In conclusion, we identified a negative impact of VAT-ECs on adipocyte functions during human obesity. Therapeutic options targeting EC inflammation could prevent adipocyte alterations that contribute to obesity comorbidities. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

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