Cardiology Unit

Yaoundé, Cameroon

Cardiology Unit

Yaoundé, Cameroon
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Decandia F.,Cardiology Unit
Irish Journal of Medical Science | Year: 2017

Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH), defined as an increased serum thyrotropin (TSH) level and normal plasma-free thyroid hormones’ concentrations, is common in the general population, in particular, among elderly women. Its prevalence ranges from 4 to 15% and up to 20% among females aged > 60 year. Although SH has been associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), it is acknowledged that the high prevalence of dyslipidemia in elderly people is considered a common biochemical condition. Therefore, whether SH is associated with a higher risk for CVD is still controversial. At the moment, no consensus exists on the clinical significance and treatment of the mild form of thyroid failure, although available data suggest that only patients with plasma TSH levels above 10 mU/L may have an increased risk of CVD. However, treatment of SH in older individual requires special consideration with regard to thyroid hormone replacement therapy and expected clinical outcomes, since the increase of TSH observed in this population may represent a physiological process. It is likely that age affects TSH levels, and some studies suggest that modified reference limits for elderly populations should be considered in the diagnosis of mild thyroid failure. © 2017 Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland

Cioffi G.,Villa Bianca Hospital | Faggiano P.,Cardiology Unit | Vizzardi E.,University of Brescia | Tarantini L.,Ospedale Civile di Belluno | And 3 more authors.
Heart | Year: 2011

Objectives: In patients with aortic stenosis (AS) left ventricular (LV) myocardial growth may exceed individual needs to compensate LV haemodynamic load leading to inappropriately high LV mass (iLVM), a condition at high risk of adverse cardiovascular events. The prognostic impact of iLVM was determined in 218 patients with asymptomatic severe AS. Methods: iLVM was recognised when the measured LV mass exceeded 10% of the expected value predicted from height, sex and stroke work (prognostic cut-off assessed by a specific ROC analysis). For assessment of outcome, the endpoint was defined as death from all causes, aortic valve replacement or hospital admission for non-fatal myocardial infarction and/or congestive heart failure. Results: At the end of follow-up (22+13 months) complete clinical data were available for 209 participants (mean age 75+11 years). A clinical event occurred in 81 of 121 patients (67%) with iLVM and in 26 of 88 patients (30%) with appropriate LV mass (aLVM) (p<0.001). Event-free survival in patients with aLVM and iLVM was 78% vs 56% at 1-year, 68% vs 29% at 3-year and 56% vs 10% at 5-year follow-up, respectively (all p<0.01). Cox analysis identified iLVM as a strong predictor of adverse outcome (Exp β 3.08; CI 1.65 to 5.73) independent of diabetes, transaortic valve peak gradient and extent of valvular calcification. Among patients with LV hypertrophy, those with iLVM had a risk of adverse events 4.5-fold higher than counterparts with aLVM. Conclusions: iLVM is common in patients with asymptomatic severe AS and is associated with an increased rate of cardiovascular events independent of other prognostic covariates.

Micari A.,Maria Eleonora Hospital | Cioppa A.,Cardiology Unit | Vadal G.,Maria Eleonora Hospital | Castriota F.,Maria Cecilia Hospital | And 7 more authors.
JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2012

Objectives: This study evaluated the use of a paclitaxel-eluting balloon (PEB) for treatment of femoropopliteal arterial disease. Background: Conventional balloon angioplasty and stenting in this setting is associated with high restenosis rates within 12 months. Recent data suggest that PEB use may reduce restenosis. Twelve-month outcomes following PEB use with provisional stenting are described. Methods: This prospective registry enrolled patients (Rutherford class 2 to 4) with reference vessel diameter of 3 to 7 mm and lesion/occlusion length ≤15 cm. Endpoints included primary patency rate, target lesion revascularization, and changes in Rutherford class and ankle-brachial index. Walking capacity, absolute claudication distance, and quality of life were also assessed. Results: The registry enrolled 105 patients. Baseline ankle-brachial index was 0.56 ± 0.15. Baseline Rutherford classification was class 2 or 3 for most patients (91.5%). Most lesions were located in the superficial femoral artery (77.1%). Mean lesion length was 76.3 ± 38.3 mm; 29.8% of lesions were total occlusions. The device was successfully used in all patients and only 12.3% of lesions required stenting. At 12-month follow-up, 92 of 105 patients (87.6%) were evaluable; the primary patency rate was 83.7%; the target lesion revascularization rate was 7.6%; 85.6% of patients were Rutherford class 0 or 1; and mean ankle-brachial index was 0.86 ± 0.15. Quality of life and absolute claudication distance showed significant improvement from baseline to 12-month follow-up. Conclusions: PEB treatment of femoropopliteal arterial disease resulted in consistent clinical improvement across multiple endpoints with a low rate of stenting and target lesion revascularization. © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Micari A.,Maria Eleonora Hospital | Cioppa A.,Cardiology Unit | Vadala G.,Maria Eleonora Hospital | Castriota F.,Maria Cecilia Hospital | And 7 more authors.
JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2013

Objectives This study aimed to appraise 2-year outcomes after percutaneous treatment of femoropopliteal artery disease with paclitaxel-eluting balloons. Background Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with paclitaxel-eluting balloons for femoropopliteal artery disease has provided favorable 1-year results. Methods Consecutive patients with Rutherford class 2 to 4 disease due to femoropopliteal lesions≤15 mm long and with 3- to 7-mm reference vessel diameter were prospectively enrolled in a multicenter registry. Endpoints of interest included primary patency, major adverse events (the composite of death, amputation, or target lesion revascularization), changes in Rutherford class, anklebrachial index, absolute claudication distance, and quality of life after≥24 months. Results A total of 105 patients (114 lesions) treated with paclitaxel-eluting balloons and provisional stenting were enrolled, and final procedural success was obtained in all. Follow-up after 27±3 months was obtained in 98 (93.3%) patients, showing that primary patency was maintained in 71 (72.4%), and major adverse events had occurred in 17 (17.5%), with persistently significant benefits in Rutherford class, ankle-brachial index, absolute claudication distance, and quality of life (all p<0.001). Secondary patency rate was achieved in 89 cases (84.7%). Conclusions PEBs are associated with favorable functional and clinical outcomes at 2 years in patients with femoropopliteal artery disease requiring percutaneous revascularization. © 2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Mond H.G.,Monash University | Proclemer A.,Cardiology Unit
PACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology | Year: 2011

A worldwide cardiac pacing and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) survey was undertaken for calendar year 2009 and compared to a similar survey conducted in 2005. There were contributions from 61 countries: 25 from Europe, 20 from the Asia Pacific region, seven from the Middle East and Africa, and nine from the Americas. The 2009 survey involved 1,002,664 pacemakers, with 737,840 new implants and 264,824 replacements. The United States of America (USA) had the largest number of cardiac pacemaker implants (225,567) and Germany the highest new implants per million population (927). Virtually all countries showed increases in implant numbers over the 4 years between surveys. High-degree atrioventricular block and sick sinus syndrome remain the major indications for implantation of a cardiac pacemaker. There remains a high percentage of VVI(R) pacing in the developing countries, although compared to the 2005 survey, virtually all countries had increased the percentage of DDDR implants. Pacing leads were predominantly transvenous, bipolar, and active fixation. The survey also involved 328,027 ICDs, with 222,407 new implants and 105,620 replacements. Virtually all countries surveyed showed a significant rise in the use of ICDs with the largest implanter being the USA (133,262) with 434 new implants per million population. This was the largest pacing and ICD survey ever performed, because of mainly a group of loyal enthusiastic survey coordinators. It encompasses more than 80% of all the pacemakers and ICDs implanted worldwide during 2009. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Werner M.,Park Hospital Leipzig | Micari A.,Maria Eleonora Hospital | Cioppa A.,Cardiology Unit | Vadala G.,Maria Eleonora Hospital | And 6 more authors.
JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2014

Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the safety and performance of the Igaki-Tamai (Igaki Medical Planning Company, Kyoto, Japan) biodegradable stent in patients with occlusive superficial femoral artery (SFA) disease. Background: Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) biodegradable stents have been shown to be effective in the coronaries, but no data are available regarding their efficacy in the femoral artery. Methods: A prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized study enrolled 30 patients with symptomatic de novo SFA disease undergoing implantation of Igaki-Tamai bioresorbable stents. Clinical examinations and duplex ultrasound were prospectively performed after 1, 6, 9, and 12 months. The main study endpoints were technical success, restenosis rate, rate of target lesion revascularization (TLR), changes in ankle-brachial index (ABI), and quality of life by evaluating the walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ). Safety was assessed by monitoring the occurrence of major adverse clinical events and serious adverse events. Results: The mean age of the patients was 67.7 years, and 77% were male. The mean lesion length was 5.9 cm. Mean diameter stenosis was reduced from 89.9% to 6.2%, after stent implantation. Technical success was 96.7%. Binary restenosis rate for the 6 and 12 months follow-up was 39.3% and 67.9%, respectively. The TLR rate was 25.0% after 6 months and 57.1% after 12 months. All TLR were successful; the secondary patency rate after 1 year was 89.3%. Between baseline and 12 months, ABI increased in 53.6% of patients. Functional endpoints (WIQ), even if affected by a relatively high reintervention rate, showed improvement in most of the patients. Conclusions: The GAIA (Evaluation of the Biodegradable Peripheral Igaki-Tamai Stent in the Treatment of De Novo Lesions in the Superficial Femoral Artery) study shows that when using biodegradable PLLA stents (Igaki-Tamai), the immediate angiographic results are comparable to the results of metal stents, achieving a high secondary patency rate after 1 year. Modifications of stent characteristics and technical modifications are needed with the goal to reduce the restenosis rate during the reabsorption period. © 2014 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Goldenberg I.,Cardiology Unit | Gillespie J.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Moss A.J.,Cardiology Unit | Hall W.J.,University of Rochester | And 6 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2010

Background-: The Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II (MADIT-II) showed a significant 31% reduction in the risk of death with primary implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy during a median follow-up of 1.5 years. However, currently there are no data on the long-term efficacy of primary defibrillator therapy. Methods And Results-: MADIT-II enrolled 1232 patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction who were randomized to ICD and non-ICD medical therapy and were followed up through November 2001. For the present long-term study, we acquired posttrial mortality data through March 2009 for all study participants (median follow-up, 7.6 years). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was performed to calculate the hazard ratio for ICD versus non-ICD therapy during long-term follow-up. At 8 years of follow-up, the cumulative probability of all-cause mortality was 49% among patients treated with an ICD compared with 62% among non-ICD patients (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that ICD therapy was associated with a significant long-term survival benefit (hazard ratio for 0-through 8-year mortality=0.66 [95% confidence interval, 0.56 to 0.78]; P<0.001). Treatment with an ICD was shown to be associated with a significant reduction in the risk of death during the early phase of the extended follow-up period (0 through 4 years: hazard ratio=0.61 [95% confidence interval, 0.50 to 0.76]; P<0.001) and with continued life-saving benefit during the late phase of follow-up (5 through 8 years: hazard ratio=0.74 [95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.96]; P=0.02). Conclusions-: Our findings demonstrate a sustained 8-year survival benefit with primary ICD therapy in the MADIT-II population. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.

Schwieler J.H.,Cardiology Unit | Kahan T.,Karolinska Institutet | Wallen N.H.,Karolinska Institutet | Nussberger J.,University of Lausanne | Hjemdahl P.,Karolinska Institutet
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the influence of angiotensin receptor blockade and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on stress-induced platelet activation in hypertensive patients. Secondary aims were effects on inflammation, coagulation, and endothelial function. METHODS: Following a 4-week placebo period, 25 hypertensive patients entered a double-blind, crossover study comparing enalapril (20mg once daily) and losartan (100mg once daily) treatment (each for 8 weeks). Patients were studied at rest and after a standardized exercise test. RESULTS: Mean arterial pressure was reduced from 119±2 to 104±2 (enalapril) and 106±2 (losartan)mmHg (both P<0.001). Plasma angiotensin II decreased from 2.4±0.4 to 0.5±0.1pmol/l with enalapril, and increased to 7.2±1.3pmol/l with losartan (both P<0.001). Exercise-evoked platelet activation, as evidenced by increased numbers of P-selectin-positive platelets (P<0.01), elevated circulating platelet-platelet aggregates (P<0.01) and soluble P-selectin levels (P<0.001), and increased platelet responsiveness to adenosine diphosphate and thrombin (both P<0.05). Neither drug influenced these markers of platelet activation at rest or following exercise. Markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C reactive protein, interleukin-6, tissue necrosis factor-α), coagulation (tissue plasminogen activator antigen, prothrombin fragment F1+2), and endothelial function (von Willebrand factor, soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1) were also uninfluenced by treatment. CONCLUSION: Enalapril and losartan failed to reduce platelet activity both at rest and during exercise in hypertensive patients. Markers of inflammation, coagulation, and endothelial function were similarly unaffected. Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system promotes its beneficial effects in hypertension through mechanisms other than platelet inhibition. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health / Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Coli S.,Cardiology Unit
The American journal of emergency medicine | Year: 2012

Adenosine is widely used for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardias for its efficacy and excellent safety, but it has been reported to precipitate severe bronchospasm in patients with pulmonary disease. The drug is therefore contraindicated in asthmatic subjects and should be used with caution in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nevertheless, true bronchospasm is rare and should be distinguished from the much more common occurrence of dyspnea, only as a symptom and without respiratory compromise, which is benign and transient. We describe the occurrence of severe bronchospasm following adenosine administration for a supraventricular tachycardia in a young male without any history of pulmonary disease. To our knowledge, this is the first time such complication is reported in a subject without lung disease. The patient arrived at the emergency department for palpitations with a regular wide QRS tachycardia with a left bundle-branch block morphology. Sinus carotid massage was unsuccessful, and 2 intravenous adenosine boluses were given without effect. A further 12-mg bolus cardioverted the patient, who became increasingly dyspneic and hypoxic, with diffuse bronchospasm. An urgent chest radiograph had normal results. He was treated with oxygen and inhaled and intravenous steroids, but dyspnea and bronchospasm resolved only after intravenous aminophylline. The arrhythmia recurred and was finally terminated by intravenous flecainide. Although dyspnea after adenosine administration is usually a transient, benign phenomenon, physicians should be alert to the presence of objective signs of respiratory distress, which should prompt immediate treatment, even in subjects without previous history of pulmonary disease.

Al-Bannay R.A.,Cardiology Unit | Husain A.A.,Cardiology Unit
Saudi Medical Journal | Year: 2010

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical presentation and comorbidities of hypertensive crisis in our own population. Methods: In this cohort based study, we investigate the clinical presentation and comorbidities of hypertensive crisis by evaluating the data collected between January and April 2009. We included 154 patients admitted with systolic and diastolic blood pressure of >179 mm Hg and >119 mm Hg (based on the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria) in the Department of Internal Medicine, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Kingdom of Bahrain. Results: In the study population, 64.3% had hypertensive urgency (blood pressure elevation without end organ damage) and 35.7% had hypertensive emergency (blood pressure elevation with end organ damage). The mean age group was 45-65 years (56% of the study population) and more men were affected than women (100:54). Shortness of breath and neurological deficits had a strong statistical association with hypertensive emergency, and headache and blurring of vision had the same tendency toward hypertensive urgency. Diabetes mellitus was an independent risk factor for hypertensive crisis. Conclusion: Most of the studied patients were known hypertensive. Diabetes mellitus is powerful predictor for hypertensive crisis. Dyspnea and neurological deficits have significant statistical correlation with hypertensive emergencies.

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