Wszelaka-Rylik M.,Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry | Year: 2017
Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has been used to characterize inclusion complex formation of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with ephedrine in aqueous solutions. ITC measurements were taken at 298.15 K on a MicroCal OMEGA ultrasensitive titration calorimeter (MicroCal Inc.). The experimental data were analyzed on the basis of the model of a single set of identical sites (ITC Tutorial Guide). Based on the experimental values of equilibrium constant (K) and enthalpy of complex formation (ΔH), the Gibbs energy of complex formation (ΔG), and the entropy of complex formation (ΔS), has been calculated. Obtained results showed that β-CD forms inclusion complex of stoichiometry 1:1 with ephedrine and the complex formation is entropy driven. Ephedrine and its complex with β-CD have been further used for covering of the obtained in a controlled way nanometric CaCO3 (calcite), which served as a solid supports for drug depositing. The calcite coating has been analyzed by the use of thermogravimetric method. The size of aggregates of pure calcite particles as well as CaCO3 particles covered by ephedrine and its complex with β-CD have been measured by DLS method. It has been found that pure CaCO3 aggregates are almost monodispersed with the mean diameter equal to 329 nm (±5 nm). Ephedrine and its complex with β-CD layers formed in situ on precipitated calcite surface prevented from crystallites aggregation and decreases particles mean diameter up to 274 nm (±5 nm) for ephedrine and 211 nm (±5 nm) for β-CD complex with ephedrine. © 2016, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.
Dzwonkowska D.,Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics | Year: 2017
In the 1960s, western societies discovered that unlimited technological progress has a very high price that the environment pays. This was also the beginning of the discussions on the role of ethics in the protection of the environment and the moral aspects of nature exploitation. Even though the state of nature was not better in Poland, it took Polish philosophers a few decades to recognize the moral problem and to address it. The prevailing communistic propaganda of progress had blurred the perception of Polish people and they are unable to notice the environmental problem. Thus, only in the 1990s, after the fall of communism, Polish philosophers noticed that our approach to nature can have a moral aspect and we are exhausting the resources of the Earth. Since then, Environmental Ethics in Poland has been developed. Polish Environmental Ethics (PEE) is an interesting blend of inspiration from internationally recognized thinkers as well as original approaches to the ecological problem. The first wave of PEE addresses problems discussed abroad, namely the range of ethics (whom do we include into ethical consideration?) and the problem of values, analyzing them in the context of Polish culture and philosophical traditions. It also proposed original approaches developed by Henryk Skolimowski as well as approaches inspired by the problems considered from the perspective of Catholic theology. The article will give an insight into PEE and will present how these applied ethics have been received and cultivated in Poland in the so called first wave. It will also highlight the problems of the second wave of PEE. © 2017, The Author(s).
Waluk J.,Polish Academy of Sciences |
Waluk J.,Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2017
Tautomerization in porphycenes, constitutional isomers of porphyrins, is strongly entangled with spectral and photophysical parameters. The intramolecular double hydrogen transfer occurring in the ground and electronically excited states leads to uncommon spectroscopic characteristics, such as depolarized emission, viscosity-dependent radiationless depopulation, and vibrational-mode-specific tunneling splittings. This review starts with documentation of the electronic spectra of porphycenes: Absorption and magnetic circular dichroism are discussed, together with their analysis based on the perimeter model. Next, photophysical characteristics are presented, setting the stage for the final part, which discusses the developments in research on tautomerism. Porphycenes have been studied in different experimental regimes: molecules in condensed phases, isolated in supersonic jets and helium nanodroplets, and, recently also on the level of single molecules investigated by optical and scanning probe microscopies. Because of the rich and detailed information obtained from these diverse investigations, porphycenes emerge as very good models for studying the complex, multidimensional phenomena involved in the process of intramolecular double hydrogen transfer. © 2016 American Chemical Society.
Kurzydlowski D.,Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw |
Grochala W.,University of Warsaw
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2017
Strong magnetic coupling between the spins of unpaired electrons is an essential ingredient of many fascinating physical phenomena. Here we report calculations using the hybrid HSE06 functional of magnetic superexchange constants, J, for a series of low-dimensional CuII and AgII binary and ternary systems with fluoride and oxide ligands. The calculations correctly reproduce the sign and size of the magnetic superexchange constants for prototypical antiferromagnetic (AFM) 1D (J1D) and 2D (J2D) systems, while overestimating the absolute values of J by about 11%. We find that [AgF][BF4], a quasi-1D system with linear infinite [AgIIF+] chains, is predicted to exhibit an unprecedented strong AFM superexchange via one atom (F), with J1D about -300meV. Compression of [AgF][BF4] to 10GPa should lead to a further increase in AFM interactions with J1D reaching -360meV at 10GPa. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Opallo M.,Polish Academy of Sciences |
Opallo M.,Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw |
Lesniewski A.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011
Since 2000, ionic liquids are applied for electrode modification. Until the middle of 2010, almost 300 papers about ionic liquid-modified electrodes were published and they are reviewed here. Hydrophobicity, high viscosity, ionic structure, ionic conductivity, very low volatility and biocompatibility are among the properties of ionic liquids making them attractive for electrode modification. From the point of view of their structure, ionic liquid-modified electrodes range from electrode substrates covered by ionic liquid film or droplet(s) to the more complex film consisting of few components including ionic liquid. Bulk-modified electrodes as carbon paste electrodes with ionic liquid as binder and carbon nanotubes - gel electrodes represent another two classes of reviewed electrodes. Electrodes modified with appended ionic liquid form the last group. Initially, research on ionic liquid-modified electrodes was oriented towards fundamental studies of ion transfer across ionic liquid/aqueous solution interface. Now, almost entire research effort in this area is oriented towards their application for electrochemical sensing with multicomponent films and carbon paste electrodes being most popular. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Radozycki T.,Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013
The Bethe-Salpeter amplitude for the fermion-antifermion bound state in the Schwinger model is investigated. The dependence on the relative time and position in the center-of-mass frame in all contributing instanton sectors is analyzed. The same is accomplished for the relative energy and momentum variables. Several interesting properties of the amplitude are revealed. The explicit threshold structure is demonstrated. © 2013 American Physical Society.
Nieznanski M.,Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology | Year: 2011
The role of the word predictability from sentence context for reality monitoring and external source monitoring was examined in two experiments. In a reality-monitoring task, discrimination of an internal source was better in the hard than in the easy condition. It is probable that extra cognitive operations engaged during word generation in the hard condition were effective cues for reality-monitoring judgements. In contrast, in an external source-monitoring task (recognition memory of item's colour), the hard condition resulted in worse source memory for generated words than did the easy condition. This result is consistent both with an item-context trade-off hypothesis and a processing hypothesis. Greater effort involved at the time of generation might limit resources available for encoding of an external source. It is also possible that for generated words, the hard condition promoted conceptual processing instead of perceptual processing; therefore the item's colour was not effectively encoded. © 2011 The Experimental Psychology Society.
Nieznanski M.,Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw
Scandinavian Journal of Psychology | Year: 2014
According to many theoretical accounts, reinstating study context at the time of test creates optimal circumstances for item retrieval. The role of context reinstatement was tested in reference to context memory in several experiments. On the encoding phase, participants were presented with words printed in two different font colors (intrinsic context) or two different sides of the computer screen (extrinsic context). At test, the context was reinstated or changed and participants were asked to recognize words and recollect their study context. Moreover, a read-generate manipulation was introduced at encoding and retrieval, which was intended to influence the relative salience of item and context information. The results showed that context reinstatement had no effect on memory for extrinsic context but affected memory for intrinsic context when the item was generated at encoding and read at test. These results supported the hypothesis that context information is reconstructed at retrieval only when context was poorly encoded at study. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wolf M.,Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2014
We give heuristic arguments and computer results to support the hypothesis that, after appropriate rescaling, the statistics of spacings between adjacent prime numbers follows the Poisson distribution. The scaling transformation removes the oscillations in the nearest-neighbor-spacing distribution of primes. These oscillations have the very profound period of length six. We also calculate the spectral rigidity Δ3 for prime numbers by two methods. After suitable averaging one of these methods gives the Poisson dependence Δ3(L)=L/15. © 2014 American Physical Society.
Radozycki T.,Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2015
The Lorentz transformation properties of the equal-time bound-state Bethe–Salpeter amplitude in the two-dimensional massless quantum electrodynamics (the so-called Schwinger model) are considered. It is shown that while boosting a bound state (a ‘meson’) this amplitude is subject to approximate Lorentz contraction. The effect is exact for large separations of constituent particles (‘quarks’), while for small distances the deviation is more significant. For this phenomenon to appear, the full function, i.e. with the inclusion of all instanton contributions, has to be considered. The amplitude in each separate topological sector does not exhibit such properties. © 2015, The Author(s).