Medical Law Review | Year: 2013
This article seeks to add to current theories of newgovernance by highlighting the predicament facing regulators and regulatees when dealing with new technologies. Using nanotechnologies as a study, it shows that new modes of governance (as opposed to traditional coercive, or command and control regulation) offer promising solutions to highly complex, uncertain, and contested problems of risk, such as those associated with new technologies. In this regard, nanotechnologies provide a useful test bed for the ambitions of newer, better modes of governance because there are not yet any fixed ideas about the appropriate course of action. The article suggests, however, that examples of new governance are less prominent than perhaps expected. Drawing on empirical data, it argues that, when faced with considerable epistemological, political, economic, and ethical uncertainties, regulatory stakeholders often exhibit a preference for more conventional command methods of regulation. That is not to say that new governance is entirely absent from regulatory policies on nanotechnologies, but that new governance is emerging in perhaps more subtle ways than the scholarly and policy literature predicted. © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press. all rights reserved.
Rivera J.P.,University of Valencia |
Verrelst J.,University of Valencia |
Leonenko G.,CardiffUniversity |
Moreno J.,University of Valencia
Remote Sensing | Year: 2013
Lookup-table (LUT)-based radiative transfer model inversion is considered a physically-sound and robust method to retrieve biophysical parameters from Earth observation data but regularization strategies are needed to mitigate the drawback of ill-posedness. We systematically evaluated various regularization options to improve leaf chlorophyll content (LCC) and leaf area index (LAI) retrievals over agricultural lands, including the role of (1) cost functions (CFs); (2) added noise; and (3) multiple solutions in LUT-based inversion. Three families of CFs were compared: information measures, M-estimates and minimum contrast methods. We have only selected CFs without additional parameters to be tuned, and thus they can be immediately implemented in processing chains. The coupled leaf/canopy model PROSAIL was inverted against simulated Sentinel-2 imagery at 20 m spatial resolution (8 bands) and validated against field data from the ESA-led SPARC (Barrax, Spain) campaign. For all 18 considered CFs with noise introduction and opting for the mean of multiple best solutions considerably improved retrievals; relative errors can be twice reduced as opposed to those without these regularization options. M-estimates were found most successful, but also data normalization influences the accuracy of the retrievals. Here, best LCC retrievals were obtained using a normalized "L1-estimate" function with a relative error of 17.6% (r2: 0.73), while best LAI retrievals were obtained through non-normalized "least-squares estimator" (LSE) with a relative error of 15.3% (r2: 0.74). © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2014
We propose a numerical framework which can simulate free surface flows with complex moving interfaces like droplet splashing as minimizing spurious currents. The numerical framework is based on the CLSVOF (coupled level set and volume-of-fluid) method, the THINC/WLIC (tangent of hyperbola for interface capturing/weighted line interface calculation) scheme, multi-moment methods (CIP-CSL and VSIAM3) and density-scaled CSF (continuum surface force) model within a balanced force formulation. In this paper, we propose a level set based algorithm of the density-scaled balanced CSF model and show that the density-scaled balanced CSF model can reduce spurious currents more than the standard balanced CSF model without using the density-scaling when the exact curvature is not given. We also show that the numerical framework can well capture the physics of droplet splashing. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Camberis A.-L.,Macquarie University |
McMahon C.A.,Macquarie University |
Gibson F.L.,Macquarie University |
Developmental Psychology | Year: 2014
In the context of the trend toward delayed parenthood, this study examines whether older maternal age is associated with greater psychological maturity and whether greater psychological maturity provides any adaptive benefit during the transition to motherhood. A sample of 240 predominantly Englishspeaking Australian women in a metropolitan area expecting their 1st baby (mean age = 32.81 years; 41% conceived after fertility treatment) completed measures of psychological maturity (hardiness, ego development, and ego resiliency) and pregnancy adaptation (maternal fetal attachment and formation of a maternal identity) in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and a measure of postnatal adjustment at 4-6 months postpartum. Structural equation modeling showed age was positively associated with a latent construct of psychological maturity, and psychological maturity was associated with more optimal adaptation in pregnancy and early motherhood. Both psychological maturity and pregnancy adaptation predicted positive postnatal adjustment. Age was indirectly related to adaptation through its relationship with psychological maturity. The relationships in the model applied regardless of mode of conception (fertility treatment or spontaneous). Potentially confounding contextual factors associated with older age at motherhood, higher education, and maternal and child health were included in the model. These results suggest that psychological maturity is a benefit of motherhood at older ages. © 2014 American Psychological Association.
Treasure T.,University College London |
Milosevic M.,University of Novi Sad |
Fiorentino F.,Imperial College London |
Thorax | Year: 2014
Pulmonary metastasectomy is a commonly performed operation and is tending to increase as part of a concept of personalised treatment for advanced cancer. There have been no randomised trials; belief in effectiveness of metastasectomy is based on registry data and surgical follow-up studies. These retrospective series are comprised predominately of solitary or few metastases with primary resection to metastasectomy intervals longer than 2-3 years. Five-year survival rates of 30-50% are recorded, but as case selection is based on favourable prognostic features, an apparent association between metastasectomy and survival cannot be interpreted as causation. Cancers for which lung metastasectomy is used are considered in four pathological groups. In non-seminomatous germ cell tumour, for which chemotherapy is highly effective, excision of residual pulmonary disease guides future treatment and in particular allows an informed decisions as to further chemotherapy. Sarcoma metastasises predominately to lung and pulmonary metastasectomy for both bone and soft tissues sarcoma is routinely considered as a treatment option but without randomised data. The commonest circumstance for lung and liver metastasectomy is colorectal cancer. Repeated resections and ablations are commonplace but without evidence of effectiveness for either. For melanoma, results are particularly poor, but lung metastases are resected when no other treatment options are available. In this review, the available evidence is considered and the conclusion reached is that in the absence of randomised trials there is uncertainty about effectiveness. A randomised controlled trial, Pulmonary Metastasectomy in Colorectal Cancer (PulMiCC), is in progress and randomised trials in sarcoma seem warranted. © 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Thoracic Society.