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Wales, United Kingdom

Cardiff Metropolitan University , formerly University of Wales Institute, Cardiff , is a university situated in Cardiff. It operates from two campuses: Llandaff on Western Avenue and Cyncoed campus to the north-east of the city.The university has over 12,000 students. The university offers degree courses in a variety of disciplines. Study is available at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, full-time and part-time, and research opportunities are offered. Cardiff Metropolitan University has a number of research and enterprise centres, including the Food Industry Centre, the Welsh Centre for Tourism Research, and the National Centre for Product Design and Development Research.Cardiff Metropolitan University has been independently acclaimed for its academic standards, with its most recent QAA Institutional Report stating that ‘confidence can be placed in the soundness of the institution's current and likely future management of the quality of its programmes and of the academic standards of the associated awards.’ Wikipedia.

Badawy A.A.-B.,Cardiff Metropolitan University
Alcohol and Alcoholism

Historical and clinical aspects of pellagra and its relationship to alcoholism are reviewed from a biochemical perspective. Pellagra is caused by deficiency of niacin (nicotinic acid) and/or its tryptophan (Trp) precursor and is compounded by B vitamin deficiencies. Existence on maize or sorghum diets and loss of or failure to isolate niacin from them led to pellagra incidence in India, South Africa, Southern Europe in the 18th century and the USA following the civil war. Pellagra is also induced by drugs inhibiting the conversion of Trp to niacin and by conditions of gastrointestinal dysfunction. Skin photosensitivity in pellagra may be due to decreased synthesis of the Trp metabolite picolinic acid→zinc deficiency→decreased skin levels of the histidine metabolite urocanic acid and possibly also increased levels of the haem precursor 5-aminolaevulinic acid (5-ALA) and photo-reactive porphyrins. Depression in pellagra may be due to a serotonin deficiency caused by decreased Trp availability to the brain. Anxiety and other neurological disturbances may be caused by 5-ALA and the Trp metabolite kynurenic acid. Pellagra symptoms are resolved by niacin, but aggravated mainly by vitamin B6. Alcohol dependence can induce or aggravate pellagra by inducing malnutrition, gastrointestinal disturbances and B vitamin deficiencies, inhibiting the conversion of Trp to niacin and promoting the accumulation of 5-ALA and porphyrins. Alcoholic pellagra encephalopathy should be managed with niacin, other B vitamins and adequate protein nutrition. Future studies should explore the potential role of 5-ALA and also KA in the skin and neurological disturbances in pellagra. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Shave R.,Cardiff Metropolitan University | Oxborough D.,University of Leeds
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases

Prolonged endurance exercise in humans has been associated with an acute impairment in diastolic and systolic cardiac function and the release of cardiac troponin. In this chapter, we review recent evidence from studies using novel echocardiographic parameters and highly sensitive cardiac troponin assays. We demonstrate that the mechanics of left and right ventricular functions are acutely impaired after completion of prolonged exercise and that this reduction in function is likely multifactorial in etiology. However, we highlight that exercise-induced cardiac troponin release is not a marker of exercise-induced pathology but likely a physiologic response to exercise. Finally, we discuss the potential link between prolonged exercise and the increased incidence of cardiac pathology in veteran athletes. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.. Source

Cooper R.A.,Cardiff Metropolitan University
International Wound Journal

Causative agents of wound infections and the routes by which they access surgical incision sites have been recognised for more than a century. Despite knowledge of the factors that influence the risks of surgical site infections (SSIs) and the means to prevent and/or control them, surgical patients still get infections. Traditional systems of classifying and diagnosing SSIs and the diversity of microbial flora reported in contemporary SSIs will be described. Strategies available to prevent and control SSIs will be critically reviewed and the need to develop alternative approaches will be discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc. Source

Badawy A.A.-B.,Cardiff Metropolitan University
Journal of Psychopharmacology

It has been proposed that focusing on brain serotonin synthesis can advance antidepressant drug development. Biochemical aspects of the serotonin deficiency in major depressive disorder (MDD) are discussed here in detail. The deficiency is caused by a decreased availability of the serotonin precursor tryptophan (Trp) to the brain. This decrease is caused by accelerated Trp degradation, most likely induced by enhancement of the hepatic enzyme tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) by glucocorticoids and/or catecholamines. Induction of the extrahepatic Trp-degrading enzyme indolylamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) by the modest immune activation in MDD has not been demonstrated and, if it occurs, is unlikely to make a significant contribution. Liver TDO appears to be a target of many antidepressants, the mood stabilisers Li+ and carbamazepine and possibly other adjuncts to antidepressant therapy. The poor, variable and modest antidepressant efficacy of Trp is due to accelerated hepatic Trp degradation, and efficacy can be restored or enhanced by combination with antidepressants or other existing or new TDO inhibitors. Enhancing Trp availability to the brain is thus the key to normalisation of serotonin synthesis and could form the basis for future antidepressant drug development. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

Pepperell R.,Cardiff Metropolitan University
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

This paper addresses an issue that has been studied from both scientific and art theoretical perspectives, namely the dichotomous nature of representational artworks. Representational artworks are dichotomous in that they present us with two distinct aspects at once. In one aspect we are aware of what is represented while in the other we are aware of the material from which the representation is composed. The dichotomy arises due the incompatibility, indeed contradiction, between these aspects of awareness, both of which must be present if we are to fully appreciate the artwork. Examples from art history are given to show how artists have exploited this dichotomy in a way that conditions our response to their work. I ypothesize that the degree of manifest dichotomy in a work determines the strength of its aesthetic effect, and propose this could be experimentally tested. I conclude that scientific studies of aesthetic experience should take the dichotomous nature of artworks into account. © 2015 Pepperell. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms ofthe Creative CommonsAttributionLicense (CCBY). Source

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