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Wales, United Kingdom

Cardiff Metropolitan University , formerly University of Wales Institute, Cardiff , is a university situated in Cardiff. It operates from two campuses: Llandaff on Western Avenue and Cyncoed campus to the north-east of the city.The university has over 12,000 students. The university offers degree courses in a variety of disciplines. Study is available at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, full-time and part-time, and research opportunities are offered. Cardiff Metropolitan University has a number of research and enterprise centres, including the Food Industry Centre, the Welsh Centre for Tourism Research, and the National Centre for Product Design and Development Research.Cardiff Metropolitan University has been independently acclaimed for its academic standards, with its most recent QAA Institutional Report stating that ‘confidence can be placed in the soundness of the institution's current and likely future management of the quality of its programmes and of the academic standards of the associated awards.’ Wikipedia.

The forecasted increase in the number of older people for this century will be accompanied by an increase of those with disabilities. Disability is usually preceded by a condition named frailty that encompasses changes associated with ageing, life styles and chronic diseases. To detect and intervene on it is of outstanding importance to prevent disability, as recovery from disability is unlikely. Recent documents stress the necessity of testing the clinical utility (in terms of risk prediction, diagnosis validity and prognostic significance) of the existing definition of frailty by using combinations of clinical criteria (current definition) and lab Biomarkers (BMs). We will measure the levels of blood and urine omic-based BMs in old people selected from eight cohorts, which include up to 75,000 participants, using standardized and innovative technology (WP1). This figure will allow us to test the research questions with a high power and validity. Combining these lab BMs with clinical BMs, we will develop predictive, diagnostic and prognostic models (WP2), with its modulation by nutrition and physical activity, in general old population and in old people showing some characteristics that confer a high risk for developing frailty (selected cardiovascular risk factors and diseases) (WP4). After that, a selected set of BMs will be validated prospectively (WP3) and assessed to find the best-fitted models (WP4). These models will guide the development of the ready-to-use kits to be implemented in the clinical settings. These kits will be at the center of dissemination and exploitation activities (WP5, WP6). A well-balanced consortium distributed over the individual tasks in the respective work packages will carry it out, with a strong participation of SMEs. In summary, FRAILOMIC is original, relevant, pertinent, feasible, overcome the usual research bottlenecks on Biomarkers, and fits perfectly with the topics addressed by the HEALTH.2012.2.1.1-2 call in human subjects

Badawy A.A.-B.,Cardiff Metropolitan University
Alcohol and Alcoholism | Year: 2014

Historical and clinical aspects of pellagra and its relationship to alcoholism are reviewed from a biochemical perspective. Pellagra is caused by deficiency of niacin (nicotinic acid) and/or its tryptophan (Trp) precursor and is compounded by B vitamin deficiencies. Existence on maize or sorghum diets and loss of or failure to isolate niacin from them led to pellagra incidence in India, South Africa, Southern Europe in the 18th century and the USA following the civil war. Pellagra is also induced by drugs inhibiting the conversion of Trp to niacin and by conditions of gastrointestinal dysfunction. Skin photosensitivity in pellagra may be due to decreased synthesis of the Trp metabolite picolinic acid→zinc deficiency→decreased skin levels of the histidine metabolite urocanic acid and possibly also increased levels of the haem precursor 5-aminolaevulinic acid (5-ALA) and photo-reactive porphyrins. Depression in pellagra may be due to a serotonin deficiency caused by decreased Trp availability to the brain. Anxiety and other neurological disturbances may be caused by 5-ALA and the Trp metabolite kynurenic acid. Pellagra symptoms are resolved by niacin, but aggravated mainly by vitamin B6. Alcohol dependence can induce or aggravate pellagra by inducing malnutrition, gastrointestinal disturbances and B vitamin deficiencies, inhibiting the conversion of Trp to niacin and promoting the accumulation of 5-ALA and porphyrins. Alcoholic pellagra encephalopathy should be managed with niacin, other B vitamins and adequate protein nutrition. Future studies should explore the potential role of 5-ALA and also KA in the skin and neurological disturbances in pellagra. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Badawy A.A.-B.,Cardiff Metropolitan University
Journal of Psychopharmacology | Year: 2013

It has been proposed that focusing on brain serotonin synthesis can advance antidepressant drug development. Biochemical aspects of the serotonin deficiency in major depressive disorder (MDD) are discussed here in detail. The deficiency is caused by a decreased availability of the serotonin precursor tryptophan (Trp) to the brain. This decrease is caused by accelerated Trp degradation, most likely induced by enhancement of the hepatic enzyme tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) by glucocorticoids and/or catecholamines. Induction of the extrahepatic Trp-degrading enzyme indolylamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) by the modest immune activation in MDD has not been demonstrated and, if it occurs, is unlikely to make a significant contribution. Liver TDO appears to be a target of many antidepressants, the mood stabilisers Li+ and carbamazepine and possibly other adjuncts to antidepressant therapy. The poor, variable and modest antidepressant efficacy of Trp is due to accelerated hepatic Trp degradation, and efficacy can be restored or enhanced by combination with antidepressants or other existing or new TDO inhibitors. Enhancing Trp availability to the brain is thus the key to normalisation of serotonin synthesis and could form the basis for future antidepressant drug development. © 2013 The Author(s).

Pepperell R.,Cardiff Metropolitan University
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2015

This paper addresses an issue that has been studied from both scientific and art theoretical perspectives, namely the dichotomous nature of representational artworks. Representational artworks are dichotomous in that they present us with two distinct aspects at once. In one aspect we are aware of what is represented while in the other we are aware of the material from which the representation is composed. The dichotomy arises due the incompatibility, indeed contradiction, between these aspects of awareness, both of which must be present if we are to fully appreciate the artwork. Examples from art history are given to show how artists have exploited this dichotomy in a way that conditions our response to their work. I ypothesize that the degree of manifest dichotomy in a work determines the strength of its aesthetic effect, and propose this could be experimentally tested. I conclude that scientific studies of aesthetic experience should take the dichotomous nature of artworks into account. © 2015 Pepperell. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms ofthe Creative CommonsAttributionLicense (CCBY).

Agency: GTR | Branch: Innovate UK | Program: | Phase: Knowledge Transfer Partnership | Award Amount: 46.03K | Year: 2016

To embed an in-office/on-site performance validation process for assessing, optimising and refining the building fabric-first approach to dwellings: analysing design and construction detailing taking an ecological/prefabrication/carbon saving focus.

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