Cardero Therapeutics Incorporated

Menlo Park, CA, United States

Cardero Therapeutics Incorporated

Menlo Park, CA, United States
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Lazarova M.,University Hospital Olomouc | Ignaszewski A.,Ubc And St Pauls Hospital Cardiology | Oudit G.Y.,University of Alberta | Dyck J.R.B.,University of Alberta | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Heart Failure | Year: 2014

Aims Chronic heart failure is a costly epidemic that affects up to 2% of people in developed countries. The purpose of this study was to discover novel blood proteomic biomarker signatures of recovered heart function that could lead to more effective heart failure patient management by both primary care and specialty physicians. Methods and results The discovery cohort included 41 heart transplant patients and 20 healthy individuals. Plasma levels of 138 proteins were detected in at least 75% of these subjects by iTRAQ mass spectrometry. Eighteen proteins were identified that had (i) differential levels between pre-transplant patients with end-stage heart failure and healthy individuals; and (ii) levels that returned to normal by 1 month post-transplant in patients with stable heart function after transplantation. Seventeen of the 18 markers were validated by multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry in a cohort of 39 heart failure patients treated with drug therapy, of which 30 had recovered heart function and 9 had not. This 17-protein biomarker panel had 93% sensitivity and 89% specificity, while the RAMP® NT-proBNP assay had the same specificity but 80% sensitivity. Performance further improved when the panel was combined with NT-proBNP, yielding a net reclassification index relative to NT-proBNP of 0.28. Conclusions We have identified potential blood biomarkers of recovered heart function by harnessing data from transplant patients. These biomarkers can lead to the development of an inexpensive protein-based blood test that could be used by physicians to monitor response to therapy in heart failure, resulting in more personalized, front-line heart failure patient management. © 2014 The Authors.

Barnett C.F.,University of California at San Francisco | Moreno-Ulloa A.,University of California at San Diego | Moreno-Ulloa A.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Shiva S.,University of Pittsburgh | And 8 more authors.
Food and Function | Year: 2015

(-)-Epicatechin ((-)-EPI), a naturally occurring flavanol, has emerged as a likely candidate for cocoa-based product reported reductions in cardiometabolic risk. The present study aimed to determine the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of purified (-)-EPI administered to healthy volunteers. In this phase I, open-label, two-part single- and multiple-dose study, subjects received either a single dose (n = 9) of 50, 100 or 200 mg or multiple doses (n = 8) of 50 mg daily (q.d.) or twice daily (b.i.d) for 5 days. Blood was collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after (-)-EPI administration in the single and multiple dose groups (blood collection repeated in day 5). Samples were analyzed by HPLC-HR-ESI-MS for EPI and metabolite quantification. In the q.d. and b.i.d. groups, blood samples were analyzed for NO surrogates and follistatin levels as well as, platelet mitochondrial complexes I, V and citrate synthase activity levels. (-)-EPI was well tolerated and readily absorbed with further phase 2 metabolism. On day 5, in the q.d. and b.i.d. groups, there were significant increases in plasma nitrite of 30% and 17%, respectively. In the q.d. group on day 5 vs. day 1, platelet mitochondrial complexes I, IV and citrate synthase activities demonstrated a significant increase of ∼92, 62 and 8%, respectively. Average day 5 follistatin AUC levels were ∼2.5 fold higher vs. day 1 AUC levels in the b.i.d. group. (-)-EPI was safe to use, with no observed adverse effects, and our findings suggest that increases in NO metabolites, mitochondrial enzyme function and plasma follistatin levels may underlie some of the beneficial effects of cocoa products or (-)-EPI as reported in other studies. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

Lanaspa M.A.,University of Colorado at Denver | Sanchez-Lozada L.G.,University of Colorado at Denver | Sanchez-Lozada L.G.,Laboratory of Renal Physiopathology and Nephrology | Choi Y.-J.,Ewha Womans University | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2012

Metabolic syndrome represents a collection of abnormalities that includes fatty liver, and it currently affects one-third of the United States population and has become a major health concern worldwide. Fructose intake, primarily from added sugars in soft drinks, can induce fatty liver in animals and is epidemiologically associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in humans. Fructose is considered lipogenic due to its ability to generate triglycerides as a direct consequence of the metabolism of the fructose molecule. Here, we show that fructose also stimulates triglyceride synthesis via a purine-degrading pathway that is triggered from the rapid phosphorylation of fructose by fructokinase. Generated AMP enters into the purine degradation pathway through the activation of AMP deaminase resulting in uric acid production and the generation of mitochondrial oxidants. Mitochondrial oxidative stress results in the inhibition of aconitase in the Krebs cycle, resulting in the accumulation of citrate and the stimulation of ATP citrate lyase and fatty-acid synthase leading to de novo lipogeneis. These studies provide new insights into the pathogenesis of hepatic fat accumulation under normal and diseased states. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Lanaspa M.A.,University of Colorado at Denver | Sanchez-Lozada L.G.,University of Colorado at Denver | Sanchez-Lozada L.G.,INC Ignacio Chavez | Cicerchi C.,University of Colorado at Denver | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Excessive dietary fructose intake may have an important role in the current epidemics of fatty liver, obesity and diabetes as its intake parallels the development of these syndromes and because it can induce features of metabolic syndrome. The effects of fructose to induce fatty liver, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance, however, vary dramatically among individuals. The first step in fructose metabolism is mediated by fructokinase (KHK), which phosphorylates fructose to fructose-1-phosphate; intracellular uric acid is also generated as a consequence of the transient ATP depletion that occurs during this reaction. Here we show in human hepatocytes that uric acid up-regulates KHK expression thus leading to the amplification of the lipogenic effects of fructose. Inhibition of uric acid production markedly blocked fructose-induced triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism whereby uric acid stimulates KHK expression involves the activation of the transcription factor ChREBP, which, in turn, results in the transcriptional activation of KHK by binding to a specific sequence within its promoter. Since subjects sensitive to fructose often develop phenotypes associated with hyperuricemia, uric acid may be an underlying factor in sensitizing hepatocytes to fructose metabolism during the development of fatty liver. © 2012 Lanaspa et al.

Tamura Y.,University of Colorado at Denver | Tanabe K.,University of Colorado at Denver | Kitagawa W.,University of Colorado at Denver | Uchida S.,Teikyo University | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology | Year: 2012

Nicorandil exhibits a protective effect in the vascular system, which is thought to be due to vasodilatation from opening ATP-dependent potassium channels and donation of nitric oxide. Recently, nicorandil was shown to be renoprotective in models of acute kidney injury and glomerulone-phritis. However, the specific mechanisms of renoprotection are unclear. We evaluated the effect of nicorandil on the rat remnant kidney model of chronic kidney disease. Blood pressure was unchanged by a 10-wk course of nicorandil, while albuminuria was significantly reduced. Glomerular injury and tubulointerstitial injury were also ameliorated by nicorandil. Oxidative stress, as noted by renal nitrotyrosine level and urine 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, were elevated in this model and was significantly reduced by nic-orandil treatment. Treatment was associated with maintenance of the mitochondrial antioxidant, manganese SOD, in podocytes and with suppression of xanthine oxidase expression in infiltrating macro-phages. Interestingly, these two cell types express sulfonylurea receptor 2 (SUR2), a binding site of nicorandil in the ATP-dependent K channel. Consistently, we found that stimulating SUR2 with nic-orandil prevented angiotensin II-mediated upregulation of xanthine oxidase in the cultured macrophage, while xanthine oxidase expression was rather induced by blocking SUR2 with glibenclamide. In conclusion, nicorandil reduces albuminuria and ameliorates renal injury by blocking oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.

Tanabe K.,University of Colorado at Denver | Tamura Y.,University of Colorado at Denver | Lanaspa M.A.,University of Colorado at Denver | Miyazaki M.,University of Colorado at Denver | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology | Year: 2012

Cisplatin nephropathy can be regarded as a mitochondrial disease. Intervention to halt such deleterious injury is under investigation. Recently, the flavanol (-)-epicatechin emerges as a novel compound to protect the cardiovascular system, owing in part to mitochondrial protection. Here, we have hypothesized that epicatechin prevents the progression of cisplatininduced kidney injury by protecting mitochondria. Epicatechin was administered 8 h after cisplatin injury was induced in the mouse kidney. Cisplatin significantly induced renal dysfunction and tubular injury along with an increase in oxidative stress. Mitochondrial damages were also evident as a decrease in loss of mitochondrial mass with a reduction in the oxidative phosphorylation complexes and low levels of MnSOD. The renal damages and mitochondrial injuries were significantly prevented by epicatechin treatment. Consistent with these observations, an in vitro study using cultured mouse proximal tubular cells demonstrated that cisplatin-induced mitochondrial injury, as revealed by a decrease in mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity, an induction of cytochrome c release, mitochondrial fragmentation, and a reduction in complex IV protein, was prevented by epicatechin. Such a protective effect of epicatechin might be attributed to decreased oxidative stress and reduced ERK activity. Finally, we confirmed that epicatechin did not perturb the anticancer effect of cisplatin in HeLa cells. In conclusion, epicatechin exhibits protective effects due in part to its ability to prevent the progression of mitochondrial injury in mouse cisplatin nephropathy. Epicatechin may be a novel option to treat renal disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.

Tanabe K.,University of Colorado at Denver | Lanaspa M.A.,University of Colorado at Denver | Kitagawa W.,University of Colorado at Denver | Rivard C.J.,University of Colorado at Denver | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology | Year: 2012

Nicorandil is an orally available drug that can act as a nitric oxide donor, an antioxidant, and an ATP-dependent K channel activator. We hypothesized that it may have a beneficial role in treating diabetic nephropathy. We administered nicorandil to a model of advanced diabetic nephropathy (the streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice lacking endothelial nitric oxide synthase, eNOSKO); controls included diabetic eNOS KO mice without nicorandil and nondiabetic eNOS KO mice treated with either nicorandil or vehicle. Mice were treated for 8 wk. Histology, blood pressure, and renal function were determined. Additional studies involved examining the effects of nicorandil on cultured human podocytes. Here, we found that nicorandil did not affect blood glucose levels, blood pressure, or systemic endothelial function, but significantly reduced proteinuria and glomerular injury (mesangiolysis and glomerulosclerosis). Nicorandil protected against podocyte loss and podocyte oxidative stress. Studies in cultured podocytes showed that nicorandil likely protects against glucose-mediated oxidant stress via the ATP-dependent K channel as opposed to its NO-stimulating effects. In conclusion, nicorandil may be beneficial in diabetic nephropathy by preserving podocyte function. We recommend clinical trials to determine whether nicorandil may benefit diabetic nephropathy or other conditions associated with podocyte dysfunction. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.

Gutierrez-Salmean G.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Meaney E.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Lanaspa M.A.,University of Colorado at Denver | Cicerchi C.,University of Colorado at Denver | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2016

Background Cardiometabolic disruptions such as insulin resistance, obesity, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemias, are known to increase the risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Several screening tools for assessing cardiometabolic risk have been developed including the TG/HDLc ratio, which has been, demonstrated to possess a strong association with insulin resistance and coronary disease. Dietary modifications, together with regular moderate exercise have proven to be effective in attenuating cardiometabolic disruptions. However, they often exhibit poor long-term patient compliance. Nutraceutics, including (−)-epicatechin (EPI), have gained increasing interest as coadjuvant effective and safe therapies that are able to attenuate hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia. Methods The aims of this study were: 1) to compare the in vitro effect of EPI vs. (+)-catechin on fructose induced triglyceride accumulation and mitochondrial function in Hep2 cells in culture, 2) to evaluate the efficacy of EPI treatment in reducing fasting blood triglycerides and improving the TG/HDLc ratio in hypertriglyceridemic patients with a total daily dose of 100 mg of EPI. Secondary clinical variables included total cholesterol, LDLc, fructosamine, glucose, insulin, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein blood levels. Results and conclusion Our results provide preliminary evidence as to favorable effects of EPI on glycemia homeostasis, lipid profile and systemic inflammation such bioactive actions are not class-effects (i.e. limited to their antioxidant potential) but instead, may result from the specific activation of associated downstream signaling pathways since catechin has no effects. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

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