Adelaide, Australia
Adelaide, Australia

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Fernandes M.,Australian Water Quality Center | Fernandes M.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | Fernandes M.,Flinders University | Benger S.,Flinders University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2012

The definition of the spatial footprint of land-derived nutrient plumes is a key element to the design of initiatives to combat eutrophication in urbanised coastal regions. These plumes, however, are difficult to monitor because of their inherent high-frequency temporal and spatial variability. Biomonitoring with macroalgae provides time-integration of bioavailable nitrogen inputs through the measurement of δ15N signatures in tissues, and adequate spatial coverage through translocation to desirable monitoring locations. In this study, we used laboratory incubations to compare three different species of macroalgae as bioindicators, and a field experiment to investigate the applicability of the technique for the large-scale mapping of nutrient plumes. Cladophora valonioides was selected for the field experiment as it showed rapid changes in δ15N values in the laboratory incubations, was abundant in shallow depths making collection cost-efficient, and had tough thalli capable of withstanding deployment in open water. Ecklonia radiata also performed well in the laboratory incubations, but field harvest from subtidal depths was comparatively more expensive. Ulva lactuca had fragile thalli, and large nitrogen reserves that acted to mask the isotopic signal of newly acquired nitrogen. Cladophora valonioides was translocated to 246 sites covering an area of ∼445 km2 along the highly urbanized temperate coast of Adelaide, South Australia. The resulting isotopic signatures of nitrogen in tissues were spatially interpolated to produce maps of land-derived nutrient plumes, to model probability and standard error in the predictive surface, and to optimize sampling design. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

Mayfield S.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | Mcgarvey R.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | Gorfine H.K.,University of Melbourne | Gorfine H.K.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2011

Mass mortality events are relatively uncommon in commercially fished populations, but when they occur, they reduce production and degrade ecosystems. Observing and documenting mass mortalities is simpler than quantifying the impact on stocks, monitoring or predicting recovery, and re-establishing commercial fishing. Direct survey measures of abundance, distribution and harvestable biomass provide the most tenable approach to informing decisions about future harvests in cases where stock collapses have occurred because conventional methods have been disrupted and are less applicable. Abalone viral ganglioneuritis (AVG) has resulted in high levels of mortality across all length classes of blacklip abalone, Haliotis rubra Leach, off western Victoria, Australia, since May 2006. Commercial catches in this previously valuable fishery were reduced substantially. This paper describes the integration of research surveys with commercial fishermen's knowledge to estimate the biomass of abalone on AVG-impacted reefs. Experienced commercial abalone divers provided credible information on the precise locations of historical fishing grounds within which fishery-independent surveys were undertaken. Abalone density estimates remained low relative to pre-AVG levels, and total biomass estimates were similar to historical annual catch levels, indicating that the abalone populations have yet to adequately recover. Survey biomass estimates were incorporated into harvest decision tables and used with prior accumulated knowledge of the populations to determine a conservative harvest strategy for the fishery. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Sharma S.K.,Carbon Planet Ltd | Sharma S.K.,Flinders University | Deml K.,Carbon Planet Ltd | Dangal S.,Environmental Resources Institute Pvt. Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2015

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation+ (REDD+) has been accepted as a new paradigm for climate change mitigation. A country like Nepal could benefit from REDD+ and make a difference to the livelihoods of communities, including poor and marginalised families, from the positive incentives realized by establishing a MRV inclusive REDD+ framework that assures net GHG emission reductions at the local, landscape or sub-national levels. This paper presents a MRV inclusive REDD+ framework for Community Based Forest Management System and guides all stakeholders to accelerate REDD+ initiatives. This proposed REDD+ framework with MRV System draws on Nepal's in-country institutional structures and technical capabilities, and thus enables Nepal to participate early in the REDD+ mechanism. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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