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Houston, TX, United States

Systems and methods for generating a three-dimensional image of a proppant-filled hydraulically-induced fracture in a geologic formation are provided. The image may be generated by capturing electromagnetic fields generated or scattered by the proppant-filled fracture, removing dispersion and/or an attenuation effects from the captured electromagnetic fields, and generating the image based on the dispersion and/or attenuation corrected fields. Removing the dispersion and/or attenuation effects may include back propagating the captured electromagnetic fields in the time domain to a source location. The image may be generated based on locations at which the back propagated fields constructively interfere or may be generated based on a model of the fracture defined using the back propagated fields.


Systems and methods for generating a three-dimensional image of a proppant-filled hydraulically-induced fracture in a geologic formation are provided. The image may be generated by capturing electromagnetic fields generated or scattered by the proppant-filled fracture, removing dispersion and/or an attenuation effects from the captured electromagnetic fields, and generating the image based on the dispersion and/or attenuation corrected fields. Removing the dispersion and/or attenuation effects may include back propagating the captured electromagnetic fields in the time domain to a source location. The image may be generated based on locations at which the back propagated fields constructively interfere or may be generated based on a model of the fracture defined using the back propagated fields.


Proppant particles formed from slurry droplets and methods of use are disclosed herein. The proppant particles can include a sintered ceramic material and can have a size of about 80 mesh to about 10 mesh and an average largest pore size of less than about 20 microns. The methods of use can include injecting a hydraulic fluid into a subterranean formation at a rate and pressure sufficient to open a fracture therein and injecting a fluid containing a proppant particle into the fracture, the proppant particle including a sintered ceramic material, a size of about 80 mesh to about 10 mesh, and an average largest pore size of less than about 20 microns.


Methods are provided for determining the location and height of a fracture in a subterranean formation using pulsed neutron capture (PNC) logging tools. The methods include obtaining a pre-fracture data set, hydraulically fracturing the formation with a slurry that includes a liquid and a proppant in which at least a portion of the proppant is tagged with a thermal neutron absorbing material, obtaining a post-fracture data set, comparing the pre-fracture data set and the post-fracture data set to determine the location of the proppant, and correlating the location of the proppant to a depth measurement of the borehole to determine the location and height of the propped fracture.


Methods and systems for determining subterranean fracture closure are disclosed herein. The methods can include electrically energizing a casing of a wellbore that extends from a surface of the earth into a subterranean formation having a fracture that is at least partially filled with an electrically conductive proppant and measuring a first electric field response at the surface or in an adjacent wellbore at a first time interval to provide a first field measurement. The methods can also include measuring a second electric field response at the surface or in the adjacent wellbore at a second time interval to provide a second field measurement and determining an increase in closure pressure on the electrically conductive proppant from a difference between the first and second field measurements.

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