Butuan, Philippines

Caraga State University

Butuan, Philippines

Caraga State University is a state-controlled university in Agusan del Norte, Philippines. Its main campus is in Ampayon, Butuan City with an auxiliary campus in Cabadbaran City.On July 27, 2009, the Congress of the Philippines passed into law Republic Act No. 9854 which was signed by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo on December 16, 2009, fusing together Northern Mindanao State Institute of Science and Technology in Butuan City and Northern Mindanao College of Arts, Science and Technology in Cabadbaran City into Caraga State University retaining the Butuan City branch at its main campus. Wikipedia.

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Santillan J.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Makinano M.,Caraga State University | Paringit E.,University of the Philippines at Diliman
Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

Landsat MSS and ETM+ images were analyzed to detect 25-year land-cover change (1976-2001) in the critical Taguibo Watershed in Mindanao Island, Southern Philippines. This watershed has experienced historical modifications of its land-cover due to the presence of logging industries in the 1950s, and continuous deforestation due to illegal logging and slash-and-burn agriculture in the present time. To estimate the impacts of land-cover change on watershed runoff, land-cover information derived from the Landsat images was utilized to parameterize a GIS-based hydrologic model. The model was then calibrated with field-measured discharge data and used to simulate the responses of the watershed in its year 2001 and year 1976 land-cover conditions. The availability of land-cover information on the most recent state of the watershed from the Landsat ETM+ image made it possible to locate areas for rehabilitation such as barren and logged-over areas. We then created a "rehabilitated" land-cover condition map of the watershed (re-forestation of logged-over areas and agro-forestation of barren areas) and used it to parameterize the model and predict the runoff responses of the watershed. Model results showed that changes in land-cover from 1976 to 2001 were directly related to the significant increase in surface runoff. Runoff predictions showed that a full rehabilitation of the watershed, especially in barren and logged-over areas, will be likely to reduce the generation of a huge volume of runoff during rainfall events. The results of this study have demonstrated the usefulness of multi-temporal Landsat images in detecting land-cover change, in identifying areas for rehabilitation, and in evaluating rehabilitation strategies for management of tropical watersheds through its use in hydrologic modeling. © 2011 by the authors.

Peligro V.C.,Institute of Education | Jumawan J.C.,Caraga State University
AACL Bioflux | Year: 2016

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is one of the major organisms found in the river and is used as the indicator of developmental noise and predict the status of the river. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the current ecological condition of Masao river, Butuan City using the fluctuating asymmetry in the body shapes of O. niloticus. A total of 100 individuals were collected by net fishing techniques. The landmark-based geometric morphometric method was used in determining the variations in the patterns of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of O. niloticus with a total of sixteen bilateral traits. FA were analyzed using symmetry and asymmetry geometric data (SAGE) program version 1.0. Results in Procrustes ANOVA showed highly significant levels of FA (p<0.0001*) and principal component scores showed a high percentage FA (71.4051%), possibly mean that Masao river is in poor environmental status and fishes in the area experienced greater developmental perturbations and stresses. Principal component (PC) 1 has the highest percentile (44.3596%) of FA. The most common affected landmarks were found in landmarks 1, 3, 5, 9, 10 and 16. These are the rostral tip of premaxilla, anterior insertion of dorsal fin, dorsal insertion of caudal fin, anterior insertion of anal fin, dorsal base of pelvic fin, and dorsal base of pectoral fin because these parts were used mostly for fish mobility. Findings of this study validated the use of FA to be a useful tool in determining the current ecological status of Masao river. © 2016, BIOFLUX SRL. All rights reserved.

Santillan J.R.,Caraga State University | Santillan M.M.,Caraga State University
35th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing 2014, ACRS 2014: Sensing for Reintegration of Societies | Year: 2016

The ASTER GDEM Version 2 (v2) which was released in 2011 is considered to be the highest resolution and readily available global digital elevation model. Having a spatial resolution of 30-m, the ASTER GDEM v2 contains significant improvements of Version 1 in terms of spatial coverage, refined horizontal resolution, water masking, and inclusion of new ASTER data to supplement the voids and artifacts. Despite of these improvements, data anomalies such as abrupt rise ("bumps") and fall ("pits") in elevation values in the ASTER GDEM v2 still remains. In this paper, we present a simplified and semi-automatic approach of detecting and correcting data anomalies in the ASTER GDEM v2 of Tago River Basin in Surigao del Sur, Mindanao, Philippines. The anomaly detection procedure consisted of calibrating the elevation values in the ASTER GDEM v2 against a resampled SRTM DEM version 4.1, creating a difference image between the calibrated ASTER GDEM and SRTM DEM, applying a low pass filter to the difference image, employing the K-means clustering algorithm to classify the difference image pixels into various classes, and then labeling them as bumps, pits or neither (i.e., not anomaly) using a known set of pixels pre-selected prior to K-means classification. The accuracy of the detection was at 99.47% based on an independent set of randomly selected validation pixels. The detected anomalies were then masked out from ASTER GDEM v2, and the elevation values of these pixels were replaced by elevation values extracted from the resampled SRTM DEM. The corrected DEM was used for hydrological applications such as computations of flow direction and flow accumulation grids, sub-basin delineations and stream network definition. These DEM derivatives are important inputs in hydrological model development for the river basin.

Santillan J.R.,Caraga State University | Makinano-Santillan M.,Caraga State University
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2016

The ALOS World 3D - 30m (AW3D30), ASTER Global DEM Version 2 (GDEM2), and SRTM-30m are Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that have been made available to the general public free of charge. An important feature of these DEMs is their unprecedented horizontal resolution of 30-m and almost global coverage. The very recent release of these DEMs, particularly AW3D30 and SRTM-30m, calls for opportunities for the conduct of localized assessment of the DEM's quality and accuracy to verify their suitability for a wide range of applications in hydrology, geomorphology, archaelogy, and many others. In this study, we conducted a vertical accuracy assessment of these DEMs by comparing the elevation of 274 control points scattered over various sites in northeastern Mindanao, Philippines. The elevations of these control points (referred to the Mean Sea Level, MSL) were obtained through 3rd order differential levelling using a high precision digital level, and their horizontal positions measured using a global positioning system (GPS) receiver. These control points are representative of five (5) land-cover classes namely brushland (45 points), built-up (32), cultivated areas (97), dense vegetation (74), and grassland (26). Results showed that AW3D30 has the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 5.68 m, followed by SRTM-30m (RMSE = 8.28 m), and ASTER GDEM2 (RMSE = 11.98 m). While all the three DEMs overestimated the true ground elevations, the mean and standard deviations of the differences in elevations were found to be lower in AW3D30 compared to SRTM-30m and ASTER GDEM2. The superiority of AW3D30 over the other two DEMS was also found to be consistent even under different landcover types, with AW3D30's RMSEs ranging from 4.29 m (built-up) to 6.75 m (dense vegetation). For SRTM-30m, the RMSE ranges from 5.91 m (built-up) to 10.42 m (brushland); for ASTER GDEM2, the RMSE ranges from 9.27 m (brushland) to 14.88 m (dense vegetation). The results of the vertical accuracy assessment suggest that the AW3D30 is more accurate than SRTM-30m and ASTER GDEM2, at least for the areas considered in this study. On the other hand, the tendencies of the three DEMs to overestimate true ground elevation can be considered an important finding that users of the DEMs in the Philippines should be aware of, and must be considered into decisions regarding use of these data products in various applications.

Cubillas J.E.,Caraga State University | Japitana M.,Caraga State University
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2016

This study demonstrates the application of CIELAB, Color intensity, and One Dimensional Scalar Constancy as features for image recognition and classifying benthic habitats in an image with the coastal areas of Hinatuan, Surigao Del Sur, Philippines as the study area. The study area is composed of four datasets, namely: (a) Blk66L005, (b) Blk66L021, (c) Blk66L024, and (d) Blk66L0114. SVM optimization was performed in Matlab® software with the help of Parallel Computing Toolbox to hasten the SVM computing speed. The image used for collecting samples for SVM procedure was Blk66L0114 in which a total of 134,516 sample objects of mangrove, possible coral existence with rocks, sand, sea, fish pens and sea grasses were collected and processed. The collected samples were then used as training sets for the supervised learning algorithm and for the creation of class definitions. The learned hyper-planes separating one class from another in the multi-dimensional feature space can be thought of as a super feature which will then be used in developing the C (classifier) rule set in eCognition® software. The classification results of the sampling site yielded an accuracy of 98.85% which confirms the reliability of remote sensing techniques and analysis employed to orthophotos like the CIELAB, Color Intensity and One dimensional scalar constancy and the use of SVM classification algorithm in classifying benthic habitats.

Makinano-Santillan M.,Caraga State University | Santillan J.R.,Caraga State University
ACRS 2015 - 36th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing: Fostering Resilient Growth in Asia, Proceedings | Year: 2015

This paper presents an analysis of the potential effects of changing climate on the geographical distribution of suitable areas in the Philippines for the cultivation of Sago palms. The Sago palm is considered to be the highest starch producer at 25 tons per hectare per year. Sago palms are being cultivated in Visayas and Mindanao although its utilization as source of starch is not yet maximized. Its mass cultivation and commercial utilization has recently gained interest from the government in order to develop and sustain a large-scale Sago starch industry. We used the FAO EcoCrop model to predict climatically-suitable areas of Sago palms for the current and future climate scenarios. EcoCrop is a simple mechanistic model which uses climate datasets and expert-derived temperature and rainfall ranges as inputs to determine the main niche of a crop and then produces a suitability score as output. However, it requires validation to determine accuracy of its predictions. For the current climate, we utilized WorldClim version 1.4, a dataset of global climate surfaces representative of the years 1950 to 2000. The predicted distribution for the current climate was validated using 472 random samples of confirmed Sago palm locations obtained through satellite image analysis and field surveys. Results of the EcoCrop model validation revealed a high model prediction rate of 90.04%. We then predicted the Sago palm suitable areas for future climate scenarios where we utilized future climate datasets projected by the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) 4 for the year 2050 under a Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 emission scenario. The comparison of the current and future distributions of Sago palm suitable areas revealed an increase of 6% in total suitable areas from current to the future scenarios which may indicate that the projected year 2050 climate may have positive effect on Sago palm suitable areas. The most interesting result, however, is the 40% increase in areas with "excellent" suitability. These results may indicate that the future climate scenario is favorable for the mass cultivation of Sago palm in the Philippines.

Japitana M.,Caraga State University | Bermoy M.,Caraga State University
ACRS 2015 - 36th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing: Fostering Resilient Growth in Asia, Proceedings | Year: 2015

The Province of Surigao del Sur, located along the northeastern coast of Mindanao facing the Pacific Ocean, is one of the provinces in the Caraga Region which have the largest coastal area and marine life biodiversity. This region is also one of the study area of Phil-LiDAR 2.B.14 Project in which one of the objectives is mapping of benthic habitats and marine aquaculture. Among the benthic habitats that are dominant in Surigao del Sur are seagrasses which are known to be highly productive ecosystem that provides shelter and serves as food source to diverse species of young and adult fish, marine invertebrates and marine mammals. Hence, this study is conducted in accordance to the objective of the project and also to assess the vastness of the seagrasses in the shallow water areas in the coast of Surigao del Sur by employing remote sensing techniques. Landsat 8 image is used in seagrass mapping by means of unsupervised ISODATA classification method. Landsat 8 images have been found to be efficient and could be an alternative in conducting benthic mapping because of its additional coastal blue band. The satellite image was radiometrically calibrated and atmospherically corrected using Fast Line-of-Sight Atmospheric Analysis of Hypercubes (FLAASH) method. Unsupervised ISODATA classification was then applied with minimum and maximum classes of 20 and 30, respectively. The seagrasses classification was clustered into two classes, namely, dense seagrass and sparse seagrass. Accuracy assessment of the classified features was performed using the validation points collected from the actual field survey. The classification has an overall accuracy of 87.5% and kappa coefficient of 0.84. It is then concluded that the classification method used is reliable and efficient in mapping spatial extents of seagrasses.

Balanay R.M.,University of Queensland | Balanay R.M.,Caraga State University | Halog A.,University of Queensland
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2016

Purpose: This paper aims to promote life cycle thinking for the mining sector in the Philippines in enhancing the interventions intended for mining as a catalyst of sustainable development in the country. The environmental ills of mining hinder the sector’s acceptability as a catalyst, which is detrimental to its sustainability at the same time. Methods: Previous works on mining impacts and life cycle thinking and assessment in the country had been reviewed to glean insights on integrating life cycle thinking in mining. Why and how such thinking and approach should be accounted for in mining is examined from these works to figure out the strategies through which mining is helped in mitigating its environmental ills. Results and discussion: Life cycle thinking helps establish a logical approach in analysing issues associated with mining processes and products. It is of great relevance in preparing for contingencies for the adverse environmental outcomes that arise at any point of mining’s life cycle (exploration to mine closure) and the mining products’ life cycles (extraction to recycling or to accumulation). With its associated assessment procedures, life cycle thinking provides a logical system in obtaining scientific evidence for forward planning particularly on the aspect of sustainable mitigation of mining’s environmental outcomes. Conclusions: It is apt that life cycle thinking be seriously accounted for in mining to improve the current undertakings of troubleshooting and addressing the adverse environmental outcomes of mining. Important insights from it facilitate the identification of sustainable mitigation strategies and who could take the lead actions, such as in developing business linkages and new markets to capitalize on the wastes and emissions from mining operations. The insights can greatly help the mining sector build its capability to come in harmony with people and nature, and work as a catalyst of sustainable development in the country. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Dellosa J.T.,Caraga State University
2015 IEEE 15th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering, EEEIC 2015 - Conference Proceedings | Year: 2015

The Philippines is increasing its Renewable Energy deployments, especially on grid-connected residential solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. However, the implementation of Net-Metering is still at its early stage. Electric distribution utilities in the country, including the Agusan del Norte Electric Cooperative (ANECO) in Butuan City are apprehensive about the potential impact of Net-Metering on their operations, especially on the load management. It was also not clear to these distribution utilities whether there was a potential demand for solar PV installations from their subscribers and how feasible it was to invest in solar PV systems. © 2015 IEEE.

Canizares L.P.,Caraga State University | Seronay R.A.,Caraga State University
AACL Bioflux | Year: 2016

Mangroves are considered as the most important components of the coastal ecosystem and among the most productive and biologically complex ecosystems on the planet. Assessment of mangrove species plays a critical role in the conservation and protection of the mangroves forest. This study aimed to perform a preliminary assessment on the true mangrove species in barangay Imelda, Dinagat Island, Philippines. The results revealed that the area is in low diversity (H’= 1.856) with ten mangrove species belongs to six families. Among the six families, family Rhizophoraceae obtains the highest species composition with five species (Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora stylosa, Rhizophora apiculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Bruguiera sexangula). Rhizophora apiculata, Bruiguiera gymnorrhiza and Xylocarpus granatum on the other hand are the top three species of true mangroves recorded of having the highest population density, relative frequency, relative dominance and importance value while Heritiera littoralis, is noted of having the lowest value. The habitat assessment of the sampling area revealed that the percent crown cover in the sampling area is in fair category (40.16%) while regeneration per m2 (3.6) and the average height of mangroves (5.87) are in an excellent category. © 2016, BIOFLUX SRL. All rights reserved.

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