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Quinto di Treviso, Italy

Giampaoli S.,Foro Italico University of Rome | Chillemi G.,Inter University Consortium for Supercomputing in Research | Valeriani F.,Foro Italico University of Rome | Lazzaro D.,Foro Italico University of Rome | And 6 more authors.
New Biotechnology

The analysis of human genetic variability can lead to the comprehension of medical issues and to the development of personalized therapeutic protocols. Single nucleotide polymorphisms, are the most common type of human genetic variation and have been associated to disease development and phenotype forecasting. The recent technologies for DNA sequencing and bioinformatic analysis are now giving the opportunity to develop new diagnostic and prevention approaches also through health promotion protocols. The genetic data management is at the same time underlining technical limitations and old ethical issues. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Robledo R.,University of Cagliari | Corrias L.,University of Cagliari | Bachis V.,University of Cagliari | Puddu N.,University of Cagliari | And 3 more authors.
Human Biology

We reviewed data collected during several studies concerning the genetic isolate of Carloforte (Sardinia, Italy) and analyzed new data on Y-chromosome markers. Carloforte is also a language island, where people still speak Tabarchino, an archaic form of Ligurian dialect. Demographic data indicate that, in the early years of its history, the Carloforte population was characterized by a high degree of endogamy and consanguinity rates that started to decrease around 1850, when marriages with Sardinian people began to occur more frequently. Cultural factors, mainly language, account for the high endogamy. Genetic data from classical markers, mtDNA, and Y-chromosome markers confirmed the strong isolation of the Carloforte population, which appears significantly different from the neighboring population of Sardinia. Analysis of MTDNA emphasizes the crucial aspect of sampling strategy-two different samplings of the same population (one based on founder surnames; the other one based on grandparents' criterion) gave different results. Founder surnames sampling is not affected by recent events, and therefore it better describes the ancestral population, whereas, grandparents' criterion sampling gives a picture of the present population, shaped by more recent events, such as migration and gene flow. This review further supports the notion that a comprehensive approach, including a detailed knowledge of the history of the population and the collection of different samplings, is essential in anthropology for reconstructing past and recent events that contributed to establishing the present genetic structure of the population. Likewise, it is essential in medical genetics to identify genes involved in complex diseases. An ideal scenario is offered by a genetic isolate with a recent, and well-documented, history, such as Carloforte, that can be a paradigm for this type of investigation. © 2013 Wayne State University Press. Source

Gregori A.,Carabinieri | Damiano F.,Carabinieri | Bonavia M.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Mileo V.,Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A. | And 2 more authors.
Science and Justice

Two synthetic cannabinoids have been identified, during a survey, as new adulterants; they might have been intended to be used as ingredients for smart drugs. The characterization of these compounds has been made by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), leading to the identification of WIN48098, a compound disclosed as a new adulterant in herbal and powder products, and AM679, identified in Italy for the first time. Taking into account the high number of synthetic cannabinoids seized during the last year in Italy, how quickly they appear on the illegal market and the rapidity required for analytical results, a method was developed for the simultaneous quantitation of several synthetic cannabinoids, using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). © 2012 Forensic Science Society. Source

Giampaoli S.,Foro Italico University of Rome | Berti A.,Carabinieri | Di Maggio R.M.,Geoscienze Forensi Italia | Pilli E.,University of Florence | And 7 more authors.
Forensic Science International

The identification of the source of a specific soil sample is a crucial step in forensic investigations. Rapid advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technology and the strong reduction of the cost of sequencing have recently opened new perspectives. In the present work a metabarcoding approach has been successfully applied to forensic and environmental soil samples, allowing the accurate and sensitive analysis of microflora (mfDNA), plants, metazoa, and protozoa DNA. The identification of the biological component by DNA metabarcoding is a strong element for the discrimination of samples geologically very similar but coming for distinct environments. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Damiano F.,Carabinieri | Silva C.,University of Parma | Gregori A.,Carabinieri | Vacondio F.,University of Parma | And 3 more authors.
Science and Justice

Identification of pharmaceutical active ingredients sildenafil and tadalafil and the characterization of a dimethylated thio-derivative of sildenafil, called thioaildenafil or thiodimethylsildenafil, in illicit dietary supplements were described.A multi-residual ultra-performance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF/MS) method was developed to screen for the presence of the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors sildenafil, tadalafil, and vardenafil and their analogues thioaildenafil and thiohomosildenafil in powders and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The study was developed in connection with an operation supervised by the Italian Medicines Agency (A.I.F.A.), aimed to monitor dietary supplements in the Italian market. In two of the eleven specimens under investigation, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) allowed the identification of the PDE-5 inhibitors sildenafil and tadalafil, while another specimen proved to contain a unapproved dimethylated thioderivative of sildenafil, thioaildenafil or thiodimethylsildenafil, identified for the first time in Italy as adulterant in food supplements. © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Source

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