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Stanisavljevic R.,Institute of Forage Crops | Djukic D.,Dositeja Obradovica 8 | Stevovic V.,Cara Dusana 34 | Terzic D.,Institute of Forage Crops | And 2 more authors.
Romanian Agricultural Research

Increasing yield and yield stability of alfalfa seed in South-east Europe is of high importance. Alfalfa seed is an expensive and competitive commodity market, as well as alfalfa for forage, which is an important and often scarce commodity in this region. The research was done in four years, in two localities with different environmental conditions: Zajecar and Nis. In Zajecar, four cultivars (NS-Slavija, NS-H-11, Zajecarska-83 and Europe) were examined. The following three plant density were examined: spacing of 20 cm and seed amount of 18 kg ha-1, the spacing of 50 cm and seed amount of 9 kg ha-1 and the spacing of 80 cm and seed amount of 4.5 kg ha-1. In Nis four local varieties (NS-Slavija, NS-H-11, Zajecarska-83 and Krusevacka-28) were used, and three plant density were tested: row spacing of 20 cm and the amount of seeds in the sowing of 15 kg ha-1, row spacing of 40 cm and the amount of seeds for sowing from 7.5 kg ha-1, row spacing of 60 cm and seed amount of 5 kg ha-1. The influence of density and cultivar on the total number of plants m-2, the stem number m-2 (vegetative + generative), the number of generative stems m-2, seed yield calculated in kg ha-1, seed germination (%) and 1000 seed weight (g) was examined. There was no effect of density and cultivar on dry matter yields (t ha-1) obtained from the first and third growth. For the combined use of alfalfa, where the first and third cut was used for fodder, and the second for the production of seed, the best result was obtained with the spacing of 40-50 cm and seed amount of 7.5-9 kg ha-1, where the relationship between seed yield and forage yield was optimal, at both sites. Under the environmental conditions of Zajecar, the highest potential for seed yield was obtained by the NS Slavija, and for forage yield by Zajecarska-83. Domestic varieties were superior to the French cultivar Europe for forage, but not for seed yield. Under the environmental conditions of Nis cultivar Krucevacka 28 showed highest potential for yield, and NS Slavija for forage yield. Source

Cvetanovic A.,University of Novi Sad | Svarc-Gajic J.,University of Novi Sad | Zekovic Z.,University of Novi Sad | Savic S.,Bulevar Oslobodenja 124 | And 3 more authors.

Main conclusion: The work investigated differences in apigenin content, as well as in other compounds, and examined the chemical profiles, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of extracts obtained from native and fermented chamomile ligulate flowers. Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.) has a long history of being used as a medicinal plant due to many health benefits, including antiinflammatory, anticancer, antispasmodic, radical-scavenging effects and others. Apigenin is recognized as one of the most bioactive phenolic compounds in chamomile. In comparison to its bound forms, which include mostly apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside and various acylated forms, the aglycone is attributed with much higher bioactivity. Due to this fact, in this work ligulate florets of chamomile anthodium were subjected to a fermentation process using native chamomile enzymes to hydrolyze bound forms of apigenin to free aglycone. The contents of apigenin and apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside were determined in both fermented and nonfermented samples by UHPLC-MS–MS analysis to define the efficiency of conversion. After defining their chemical profiles, the extracts of fermented and nonfermented chamomile samples were also compared with respect to their antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects. The antioxidant effects of the obtained extracts were defined by electron spin resonance analysis for hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. The antimicrobial activity was defined for eight microbial strains, whereas cytotoxic activity was evaluated using two human cell lines (human cervix carcinoma and human rhabdomyosarcoma) and murine fibroblasts. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Vukovic S.,University of Novi Sad | Indic D.,University of Novi Sad | Gvozdenac S.,University of Novi Sad | Grahovac M.,University of Novi Sad | And 3 more authors.
Romanian Agricultural Research

Beet weevil (Bothynoderes punctiventris Germ.) is the most damaging pest of sugar beet in south-eastern Europe, from seedling emergence and in the first phases of crop development. Efficacy of insecticides (active ingredients of chlorpyriphos + bifenthrin, chlorpyriphos + beta-cyfluthrin and chlorpyriphos + cypermethrin) for the control of beet weevil was tested during 2010 and 2011 under laboratory and field conditions. A wet filter paper method (contact action) was employed in laboratory tests. Simultaneously, field trials were conducted (Čurug, Rimski Šančevi, Budisava, Kovilj) (contact and digestive action). The trial was designed according to EPPO method and insecticide efficacy was tested in accordance with the pest biology and phenophase of the crop. Insecticide efficacy was calculated using Abbot's formula, and damage of plants was assessed using 0-5 scale. Commercial insecticide Nurelle D (active ingredient of chlorpyriphos + cypermethrin) maintained high contact and digestive action on beet weevil, although it has been in use for 20 years. Commercial insecticide Pyrinex Super (active ingredient of chlorpyriphos + bifenthrin), although with reduced content of chlorpyriphos by 30% and of bifenthrin by 20%, achieved efficacy that was at the same level of significance with Nurelle-D, regardless of the experimental conditions (laboratory or field). Compared to Nurelle-D, the product MCW 784 (chlorpyriphos + beta-cyfluthrin) had significantly lower initial efficacy 3 h after application in laboratory trial, and also 24 h after application in field trial. Source

Tanaskovic S.,Cara Dusana 34 | Madic M.,Cara Dusana 34 | Durovic D.,Cara Dusana 34 | Knezevic D.,Kopaonicka | Vukajlovic F.,Radoja Domanovica 12
Romanian Agricultural Research

Outbreaks of the cereal leaf beetle (CLB) Oulema melanopa L. in Serbian conditions occur in a cyclic pattern and its high abundance in certain years require chemical control. Areas on chemical control vary from 2 to 28 % of total cereal area. Two groups of insecticides (organophosphate and pyrethroids) and their mixture were tested in field conditions of western Serbia during 2008 and 2009. The products Vantex 60CS, Cimogal, Perfekthion and Gusathion 25WP were tested for the control of number of CLB larvae in winter wheat. Density of populations of larvae in pre-treatment inspections was on average 1.2-1.6 larvae per plant, higher than the accepted economical threshold level (1 larva/plant). After treatment smallest number of live mobile CLB larvae per plot was registered in plots treated with Vantex 60 SC in both years (0.5 and 3), followed by plots treated with Cimogal and Gusathion 25WP in 2008 (7.5) and Cimogal in 2009 (8.7). The tested products proved good efficiency in controlling populations of CLB larvae in winter wheat. The most efficient in control of CLB larvae was Vantex 60 SC (98.8% and 96%), followed with Cimogal, with an efficiency of over 87%. Gusathion 25WP manifested a trend to reducing efficiency (87.5 to 72.2%). The lowest efficiency was registered by products Perfekthion (60.3 and 54.5 %), as we expected for a product with long history of use in cereal fields. Source

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