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Williams H.D.,Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Anby M.U.,Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Sassene P.,Copenhagen University | Kleberg K.,Copenhagen University | And 15 more authors.
Molecular Pharmaceutics | Year: 2012

The LFCS Consortium was established to develop standardized in vitro tests for lipid-based formulations (LBFs) and to examine the utility of these tests to probe the fundamental mechanisms that underlie LBF performance. In this publication, the impact of bile salt (sodium taurodeoxycholate, NaTDC) concentration and drug loading on the ability of a range of representative LBFs to generate and sustain drug solubilization and supersaturation during in vitro digestion testing has been explored and a common driver of the potential for drug precipitation identified. Danazol was used as a model poorly water-soluble drug throughout. In general, increasing NaTDC concentrations increased the digestion of the most lipophilic LBFs and promoted lipid (and drug) trafficking from poorly dispersed oil phases to the aqueous colloidal phase (AP DIGEST). High NaTDC concentrations showed some capacity to reduce drug precipitation, although, at NaTDC concentrations ≥3 mM, NaTDC effects on either digestion or drug solubilization were modest. In contrast, increasing drug load had a marked impact on drug solubilization. For LBFs containing long-chain lipids, drug precipitation was limited even at drug loads approaching saturation in the formulation and concentrations of solubilized drug in AP DIGEST increased with increased drug load. For LBFs containing medium-chain lipids, however, significant precipitation was evident, especially at higher drug loads. Across all formulations a remarkably consistent trend emerged such that the likelihood of precipitation was almost entirely dependent on the maximum supersaturation ratio (SRM) attained on initiation of digestion. SRM defines the supersaturation "pressure" in the system and is calculated from the maximum attainable concentration in the APDIGEST (assuming zero precipitation), divided by the solubility of the drug in the colloidal phases formed post digestion. For LBFs where phase separation of oil phases did not occur, a threshold value for SRM was evident, regardless of formulation composition and drug solubilization reduced markedly above SRM > 2.5. The threshold SRM may prove to be an effective tool in discriminating between LBFs based on performance. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Williams H.D.,Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Sassene P.,Copenhagen University | Kleberg K.,Copenhagen University | Calderone M.,Sanofi S.A. | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

The Lipid Formulation Classification System Consortium looks to develop standardized in vitro tests and to generate much-needed performance criteria for lipid-based formulations (LBFs). This article highlights the value of performing a second, more stressful digestion test to identify LBFs near a performance threshold and to facilitate lead formulation selection in instances where several LBF prototypes perform adequately under standard digestion conditions (but where further discrimination is necessary). Stressed digestion tests can be designed based on an understanding of the factors that affect LBF performance, including the degree of supersaturation generated on dispersion/digestion. Stresses evaluated included decreasing LBF concentration (↓LBF), increasing bile salt, and decreasing pH. Their capacity to stress LBFs was dependent on LBF composition and drug type: ↓LBF was a stressor to medium-chain glyceride-rich LBFs, but not more hydrophilic surfactant-rich LBFs, whereas decreasing pH stressed tolfenamic acid LBFs, but not fenofibrate LBFs. Lastly, a new Performance Classification System, that is, LBF composition independent, is proposed to promote standardized LBF comparisons, encourage robust LBF development, and facilitate dialogue with the regulatory authorities. This classification system is based on the concept that performance evaluations across three in vitro tests, designed to subject a LBF to progressively more challenging conditions, will enable effective LBF discrimination and performance grading. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:2441-2455, 2014 © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

Sassene P.,Copenhagen University | Kleberg K.,Copenhagen University | Williams H.D.,Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Bakala-N'Goma J.-C.,Aix - Marseille University | And 14 more authors.
Botanical Review | Year: 2014

The impact of pancreatin and calcium addition on a wide array of lipid-based formulations (LBFs) during in vitro lipolysis, with regard to digestion rates and distribution of the model drug danazol, was investigated. Pancreatin primarily affected the extent of digestion, leaving drug distribution somewhat unaffected. Calcium only affected the extent of digestion slightly but had a major influence on drug distribution, with more drug precipitating at higher calcium levels. This is likely to be caused by a combination of removal of lipolysis products from solution by the formation of calcium soaps and calcium precipitating with bile acids, events known to reduce the solubilizing capacity of LBFs dispersed in biorelevant media. Further, during the digestion of hydrophilic LBFs, like IIIA-LC, the un-ionized–ionized ratio of free fatty acids (FFA) remained unchanged at physiological calcium levels. This makes the titration curves at pH 6.5 representable for digestion. However, caution should be taken when interpreting lipolysis curves of lipophilic LBFs, like I-LC, at pH 6.5, at physiological levels of calcium (1.4 mM); un-ionized–ionized ratio of FFA might change during digestion, rendering the lipolysis curve at pH 6.5 non-representable for the total digestion. The ratio of un-ionized–ionized FFAs can be maintained during digestion by applying non-physiological levels of calcium, resulting in a modified drug distribution with increased drug precipitation. However, as the main objective of the in vitro digestion model is to evaluate drug distribution, which is believed to have an impact on bioavailability in vivo, a physiological level (1.4 mM) of calcium is preferred. © 2014, American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.

Williams H.D.,Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Sassene P.,Copenhagen University | Kleberg K.,Copenhagen University | Calderone M.,Sanofi S.A. | And 8 more authors.
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2013

Purpose: Recent studies have shown that digestion of lipid-based formulations (LBFs) can stimulate both supersaturation and precipitation. The current study has evaluated the drug, formulation and dose-dependence of the supersaturation - precipitation balance for a range of LBFs. Methods: Type I, II, IIIA/B LBFs containing medium-chain (MC) or long-chain (LC) lipids, and lipid-free Type IV LBF incorporating different doses of fenofibrate or tolfenamic acid were digested in vitro in a simulated intestinal medium. The degree of supersaturation was assessed through comparison of drug concentrations in aqueous digestion phases (APDIGEST) during LBF digestion and the equilibrium drug solubility in the same phases. Results: Increasing fenofibrate or tolfenamic acid drug loads (i.e., dose) had negligible effects on LC LBF performance during digestion, but promoted drug crystallization (confirmed by XRPD) from MC and Type IV LBF. Drug crystallization was only evident in instances when the calculated maximum supersaturation ratio (SRM) was >3. This threshold SRM value was remarkably consistent across all LBF and was also consistent with previous studies with danazol. Conclusions: The maximum supersaturation ratio (SRM) provides an indication of the supersaturation 'pressure' exerted by formulation digestion and is strongly predictive of the likelihood of drug precipitation in vitro. This may also prove effective in discriminating the in vivo performance of LBFs. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Bakala-N'Goma J.-C.,Aix - Marseille University | Williams H.D.,Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Sassene P.J.,Copenhagen University | Kleberg K.,Copenhagen University | And 14 more authors.
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2015

Purpose: Lipid-based formulations (LBF) are substrates for digestive lipases and digestion can significantly alter their properties and potential to support drug absorption. LBFs have been widely examined for their behaviour in the presence of pancreatic enzymes. Here, the impact of gastric lipase on the digestion of representative formulations from the Lipid Formulation Classification System has been investigated. Methods: The pHstat technique was used to measure the lipolysis by recombinant dog gastric lipase (rDGL) of eight LBFs containing either medium (MC) or long (LC) chain triglycerides and a range of surfactants, at various pH values [1.5 to 7] representative of gastric and small intestine contents under both fasting and fed conditions. Results: All LBFs were hydrolyzed by rDGL. The highest specific activities were measured at pH 4 with the type II and IIIA MC formulations that contained Tween®85 or Cremophor EL respectively. The maximum activity on LC formulations was recorded at pH 5 for the type IIIA-LC formulation. Direct measurement of LBF lipolysis using the pHstat, however, was limited by poor LC fatty acid ionization at low pH. Conclusions: Since gastric lipase initiates lipid digestion in the stomach, remains active in the intestine and acts on all representative LBFs, its implementation in future standardized in vitro assays may be beneficial. At this stage, however, routine use remains technically challenging. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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