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Wu Z.,Aviation General Hospital of China Medical University | Qian X.-Y.,Aviation General Hospital of China Medical University | An J.-X.,Aviation General Hospital of China Medical University | Liu C.-C.,Aviation General Hospital of China Medical University | And 4 more authors.
Pain Physician | Year: 2015

Background: Patients with chronic pain usually suffer from cognitive impairment, with memory deterioration being the most common deficit that affects daily functioning and quality of life. The causes for this impairment are not clear despite intensive clinical studies. Few studies have evaluated impaired learning using animal models of persistent pain. Objective: In this study, a new trigeminal neuralgia model induced by cobra venom was adopted to explore effects of chronic pain on spatial learning and memory in rats. Study Design: Controlled animal study. Setting: Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine & Critical Care Medicine, Aviation General Hospital of China Medical University. Methods: Thirty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 15): NS control group and cobra venom group, 0.9% sterile saline or cobra venom solution was injected into the sheath of the infraorbital nerve (ION), respectively. The development of trigeminal neuralgia was accessed by changes in free behavioral activity 3 days before the surgery and 3, 7, 12, 20, and 30 days after the surgery to identify whether the model was successful or not. Morris water maze test determined the abilities of spatial learning and memory at the time points before the surgery, and 2 weeks and 5 weeks after the surgery. We also observed the ultrastructure of the ION and medulla oblongata of rats following 8 weeks of chronic trigeminal neuropathic pain. Results: Rats with the cobra venom injection displayed significantly more face grooming and fewer exploratory activities compared to the NS control group or baseline (P < 0.01). Both groups improved their latency to reach the platform with the largest difference on the first day (P < 0.01), but without memory deficits in a probe trial for the second water maze protocol. For the third water maze testing, the rats in the cobra venom group experienced decreased abilities of spatial learning and memory, a longer latency with spatial memory deficits during the probe trial (P < 0.05). At the ultrastructural level, we found changes in the medulla oblongata after cobra venom injection resulting in severe demyelination and loss of axons that might be implicated in the causes of cognitive deficits. Limitations: Limitations include partial vision loss in the eye on the lesion side of the rats that might be missed and the absence of evaluating the ultrastructural changes in other parts of the brain. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that trigeminal neuralgia induced by cobra venom in adult rats can impair spatial learning and memory function over time and results in demonstrable changes in the ultrastructure of the medulla oblongata. This new animal model may be useful for future studies on the effect of chronic pain on learning and cognition. © 2015, Association of Pain Management Anesthesiologists. All rights reserved. Source

Wang G.Z.,Capital Medicine University
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2010

To determine whether the combination of traditional risk factors and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) assessment could provide accurate prognostic information on a population-based study including 1137 adults with subclinical artherosclerosis and with coronary risk factors. Participants underwent coronary angiography examination before the minimal stenotic diameters, segment diameters, percent stenosis, plaque areas. Other parameters were analyzed by the computer-assisted Coronary Angiography Analysis System. The Framingham Risk Score for each participant was assessed. During the 1 year follow-up period, all kinds of endpoint cardiovascular events were screened. Endpoint events were defined as death from coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina pectoris. During the 1 year of follow-up period, a total of 124 participants developed an endpoint event, which was significantly associated with the Framingham Risk Score, calcium of plaques and the plaque areas (all Ps<0.05). The QCA score incorporated with the QCA parameters was related to the endpoint events. The Framingham Risk Score was combined with QCA score through logistic regression for prediction of end-point events. Data from the ROC analysis showed the accuracy of this prediction algorithm was superior to the accuracy when variables themselves were used. The event-free survival rate was inferior to the control group in participates under high risk, when being screened with this prediction algorithm (P<0.05). The risk of cardiovascular attack in subclinical artherosclerosis individual seemed to be associated with the Framingham Risk Score, calcium of plaques and the plaque areas. When the traditional risk factors (the Framingham Risk Score) were combined with QCA, the new method could provide more prognostic information on those adults with subclinical artherosclerosis. Source

Liu J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Liu J.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ma L.,Ocean University of China | Wu N.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Marine Drugs | Year: 2014

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a tumor-selective apoptosis inducer and has been shown to be promising for treating various types of cancers. However, the application of TRAIL is greatly impeded by the resistance of cancer cells to its action. Studies show that overexpression of some critical pro-survival proteins, such as survivin, is responsible for TRAIL resistance. In this study, we found that Aplysin, a brominated compound from marine organisms, was able to restore the sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL both in vitro and in vivo. Aplysin was found to enhance the tumor-suppressing capacity of TRAIL on several TRAIL-resistant cancer cell lines. TRAIL-induced apoptosis was also potentiated in A549 and MCF7 cells treated with Aplysin. Survivin downregulation was identified as a mechanism by which Aplysin-mediated TRAIL sensitization of cancer cells. Furthermore, the activation of p38 MAPK was revealed in Aplysin-treated cancer cells, and its inhibitor SB203580 was able to abrogate the promoting effect of Aplysin on the response of cancer cells to TRAIL action, as evidenced by restored survivin expression, elevated cell survival and reduced apoptotic rates. In conclusion, we provided evidence that Aplysin acts as a sensitizer for TRAIL and its effect on p38 MAPK/survivin pathway may partially account for this activity. Considering its low cytotoxicity to normal cells, Aplysin may be a promising agent for cancer treatment in combination with TRAIL. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI. Source

Zhang X.J.,Capital Medicine University
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2010

To study the association between the levels of serum resistin, visfatin and insulin resistance as well as β-cell dysfunction in the first-degree relatives (FDR) of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to investigate the role of these adipocytokines in pathogenesis of T2DM. Serum levels of resistin, visfatin as well as fasting true insulin (FTI), proinsulin (FPI) levels were measured in 71 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM. 55 subjects with IGT/IFG and 174 NGT from first-degree relatives of T2DM, and 114 subjects of NGT without T2DM family history served as control group (NC). Insulin resistance was assessed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function was evaluated by HOMA-β and fasting PI-to-TI ratio (FPI/TI). Lipid profile, liver function and kidney function were also tested. Anthropometrical parameters such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and blood pressure were also recorded and life style and food intake spectrum investigated. (1) There were no significant differences of serum resistin levels among the four groups (P>0.05). The serum resistin level was not correlated with HomA-IR, HomA-β and obesity markers (P>0.05).(2) The serum visfatin levels of DM group, IGT/IFG and NGT group were lower than the NC group (P<0.05). There were no significant difference among DM group, IGT/IFG group and NGT. The serum visfatin level was not correlated with HOMA-IR and obesity markers (P>0.05), but negatively correlated with fasting blood glucose, 2 h postprandial blood glucose and blood pressure (P<0.05). The adipokine profile in FDRs of T2DM had distinctively altered before the development of impaired glucose tolerance. Serum levels of visfatin, showed a favorable effect on glucose metabolism also had a significant decrease on serum levels in the early stage of T2DM. Source

Liang Z.,Qingdao University | Xiu C.,Qingdao University | Liu Z.,Qingdao University | Sun X.,Qingdao University | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Vascular Surgery | Year: 2016

Background Internal carotid artery fenestration is a rare congenital cerebrovascular condition and can be misdiagnosed as carotid artery dissection. Case Report A patient was initially misdiagnosed with carotid artery dissection. This initial diagnosis was made using a carotid vascular computed angiography and magnetic resonance angiography. A digital subtraction angiography examination revealed a fenestration in the terminal C1 segment of the right internal carotid artery. Previous literature related to carotid artery fenestration was reviewed and analyzed. Conclusions Fenestration of the carotid artery combined with aneurysm at the external segment of the internal carotid artery or from the starting position of the carotid artery remains rare in elderly patients, can be misdiagnosed as artery dissection. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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