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Lyu Y.,Capital Institute of Paediatrics | Lyu Y.,Peking University | Lyu Y.,University of Toronto | Ouyang F.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 4 more authors.
Public Health | Year: 2013

Objective: To examine the trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity, as well as the impact of stunting on overweight/obesity, among rural children aged <60 months in southeast China between 1998 and 2005. Study design: Data from the population-based Child Health Care Surveillance System (CHCSS) from eight counties in southeast China were used. Overweight and obesity were defined as weight-for-height/length z score >2 and >3 standard deviations (SDs), respectively, and stunting was defined as height/length-for-age z score <-2 SD, in accordance with the 2006 World Health Organization growth standard. Methods: A total of 550,693 clinic visit records of 280,931 children from the CHCSS, collected between 1998 and 2005, were included in the analysis. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence rates of overweight, obesity and stunting were estimated for each year, and the trends over time were examined. The impact of stunting on overweight/obesity was determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of overweight increased from 3.7% in 1998 to 3.9% in 2005 (P<0.001), but no increase in the prevalence of obesity was observed (0.5% in 1998 and 0.6% in 2005; P>0.05). The prevalence of obesity increased significantly in 2005 compared with 1998 among boys aged ≥24 months, but was similar between 1998 and 2005 for girls aged ≥12 months. The prevalence of stunting decreased from 3.9% in 1998 to 1.6% in 2005 (P<0.001). There was a positive association between stunting and overweight/obesity in both 1998 and 2005, although the association was attenuated in 2005. Conclusion: There was a small increase in the prevalence of overweight among rural preschool children in southeast China from 1998 to 2005. The prevalence of obesity remained stable. However, the prevalence of stunting decreased and its positive influence on overweight/obesity was weaker in 2005. © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health.

PubMed | Save the Children UK., Karolinska Institutet, University of Technology, Sydney, Institute of International Programs and 67 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of global health | Year: 2015

In 2013, an estimated 2.8 million newborns died and 2.7 million were stillborn. A much greater number suffer from long term impairment associated with preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, congenital anomalies, and perinatal or infectious causes. With the approaching deadline for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2015, there was a need to set the new research priorities on newborns and stillbirth with a focus not only on survival but also on health, growth and development. We therefore carried out a systematic exercise to set newborn health research priorities for 2013-2025.We used adapted Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methods for this prioritization exercise. We identified and approached the 200 most productive researchers and 400 program experts, and 132 of them submitted research questions online. These were collated into a set of 205 research questions, sent for scoring to the 600 identified experts, and were assessed and scored by 91 experts.Nine out of top ten identified priorities were in the domain of research on improving delivery of known interventions, with simplified neonatal resuscitation program and clinical algorithms and improved skills of community health workers leading the list. The top 10 priorities in the domain of development were led by ideas on improved Kangaroo Mother Care at community level, how to improve the accuracy of diagnosis by community health workers, and perinatal audits. The 10 leading priorities for discovery research focused on stable surfactant with novel modes of administration for preterm babies, ability to diagnose fetal distress and novel tocolytic agents to delay or stop preterm labour.These findings will assist both donors and researchers in supporting and conducting research to close the knowledge gaps for reducing neonatal mortality, morbidity and long term impairment. WHO, SNL and other partners will work to generate interest among key national stakeholders, governments, NGOs, and research institutes in these priorities, while encouraging research funders to support them. We will track research funding, relevant requests for proposals and trial registers to monitor if the priorities identified by this exercise are being addressed.

Yang T.,Shanxi Medical University | Yang L.,Shanxi Medical University | Chai W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Li R.,Shanxi Medical University | And 3 more authors.
Protein Expression and Purification | Year: 2011

A phage display single-chain variable fragment (scFv) library against TNFα was constructed using a recombinant phage antibody system (RPAS). The cloned scFv gene was introduced into the phage display vector pCANTAB 5E and expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) with a yield of up to 0.15 mg/l of total protein. With the attempt to improve the expression level of TNF-scFv, a strategy was established for subcloning the scFv gene from pCANTAB 5E into the plasmid pBV220. Under the control of a highly efficient tandem P RPL promoter system, scFv production was increased to 30% of total protein as inclusion bodies. After extraction from the cell pellet by sonication, the inclusion bodies were solubilized and denatured in the presence of 8 M urea. Purification of denatured scFv was performed using nickel column chromatography followed by renaturation. The purity and activity of the refolded scFv were confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blotting and by an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). The results reveal that the overall yield of bioactive TNF-scFv from E. coli flask cultures was more than 45 mg/l culture medium and 15 mg/g wet weight cells. The renatured scFv exhibited binding activity similarly to soluble scFv. In conclusion we developed a method to over-express TNF-scFv, which have biological function after purification and renaturation. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Xi B.,Capital Institute of Paediatrics | Xi B.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhang L.,Capital Institute of Paediatrics | Mi J.,Capital Institute of Paediatrics
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2010

Objective To explore the metabolic syndrome and its association with arterial compliance in Chinese children and adolescents. Methods 337 participants aged 6 to 18 years with males accounted for 55.8% were grouped according to their traits of metablic syndrome. Anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, insulin and serum lipid profile were measured. Homeostasis model was assessed and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was measured and calculated for estimating individual insulin resistance. Arterial compliance was also measured using digital pulse wave analyzing method (Micro medical, London), and stiffness index was calculated. Results The stiffness index in participants with metablic syndrome was significant higher than that in participants with no riskof metablic syndrome [(7.69±1.63) vs (6.25±0.86) m/s, P<0.01] and stiffness index and HOMA-IR were progressively increased with the increase of traits of metablic syndrom (P for linear trend <0.001). After gender, age, and pubertal development were adjusted, both traits of metablic syndrome and HOMA-IR were correlated positively with stiffness index (both P<0.05). Conclusion The clustering of metablic syndrome was closely associated with risk at increased arterial stiffness in Chinese children and adolescents. It was suggested that arterial compliance assessment of children and adolescents might be an important measure for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2010 by China CDC.

Li Y.,Peking Union Medical College | Li Y.,Capital Institute of Paediatrics | Zhu R.,Capital Institute of Paediatrics | Qian Y.,Peking Union Medical College | And 6 more authors.
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2011

Background: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are two major etiological agents of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD). EV71 is associated with severe cases but not CA16. The mechanisms contributed to the different pathogenesis of these two viruses are unknown. VP1 and VP4 are two major structural proteins of these viruses, and should be paid close attention to. Results: The sequences of vp1s from 14 EV71 and 14 CA16, and vp4s from 10 EV71 and 1 CA16 isolated in this study during 2007 to 2009 HFMD seasons were analyzed together with the corresponding sequences available in GenBank using DNAStar and MEGA 4.0. Phylogenetic analysis of complete vp1s or vp4s showed that EV71 isolated in Beijing belonged to C4 and CA16 belonged to lineage B2 (lineage C). VP1s and VP4s from 4 strains of viruses expressed in E. coli BL21 cells were used to detect IgM and IgG in human sera by Western Blot. The detection of IgM against VP1s of EV71 and CA16 showed consistent results with current infection, while none of the sera were positive against VP4s of EV71 and CA16. There was significant difference in the positive rates between EV71 VP1 and CA16 VP1 (χ 2 = 5.02, P < 0.05) as well as EV71 VP4 and CA16 VP4 ( 2 = 15.30, P < 0.01) in the detection of IgG against recombinant proteins with same batch of serum samples. The sera-positive rate of IgG against VP1 was higher than that against VP4 for both EV71 (χ 2 = 26.47, P < 0.01) and CA16 (χ 2 = 16.78, P < 0.01), which might be because of different positions of VP1 and VP4 in the capsid of the viruses. Conclusions: EV71 and CA16 were highly diverse in the nucleotide sequences of vp1s and vp4s. The sera positive rates of VP1 and VP4 of EV71 were lower than those of CA16 respectively, which suggested a less exposure rate to EV71 than CA16 in Beijing population. Human serum antibodies detected by Western blot using VP1s and VP4s as antigen indicated that the immunological reaction to VP1 and VP4 of both EV71 and CA16 was different. © 2011Li et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

PubMed | Capital Institute of Paediatrics and The Affiliated Childrens Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of international medical research | Year: 2016

To describe the deletion patterns and distribution characteristics of the dystrophin gene in a Chinese population of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) or Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD).Patients with DMD/BMD were recruited. Deletions in 19 exons of the dystrophin gene were evaluated using accurate multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Multiplex PCR identified deletions in 238/401 (59.4%) patients with DMD/BMD. Of these, 196 (82.4%) were in the distal hotspot, 32 (13.4%) were in the proximal hotspot, five (2.1%) were in both regions and five (2.1%) were in neither hotspot. Deletions were classified into 54 patterns. Exon 49 was the most frequently deleted. The reading frame rule was upheld for 91.9% of cases.Accurate multiplex PCR for 19 exons is an effective diagnostic tool.

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