Maastricht, Netherlands
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Klaassen E.M.M.,Maastricht University | Van De Kant K.D.G.,Maastricht University | Jobsis Q.,Maastricht University | Penders J.,CAPHRI | And 7 more authors.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2014

Background: Childhood asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Integrative genomic analysis of airway inflammation on genetic and protein level may help to unravel mechanisms of childhood asthma. We aimed to employ an integrative genomic approach investigating inflammation markers on DNA, mRNA, and protein level at preschool age in relationship to asthma development. Methods: In a prospective study, 252 preschool children (202 recurrent wheezers, 50 controls) from the Asthma DEtection and Monitoring (ADEM) study were followed until the age of six. Genetic variants, mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and protein levels in exhaled breath condensate for intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), interleukin (IL)4, IL8, IL10, IL13, and tumor necrosis factor α were analyzed at preschool age. At six years of age, a classification (healthy, transient wheeze, or asthma) was based on symptoms, lung function, and medication use. Results: The ICAM1 rs5498 A allele was positively associated with asthma development (p = 0.02) and ICAM1 gene expression (p = 0.01). ICAM1 gene expression was positively associated with exhaled levels of soluble ICAM1 (p = 0.04) which in turn was positively associated with asthma development (p = 0.01). Furthermore, rs1800872 and rs1800896 in IL10 were associated with altered IL10 mRNA expression (p < 0.01). Exhaled levels of IL4, IL10, and IL13 were positively associated with asthma development (p < 0.01). Conclusions: In this unique prospective study, we demonstrated that ICAM1 is associated with asthma development on DNA, mRNA, and protein level. Thus, ICAM1 is likely to be involved in the development of childhood asthma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Van De Kant K.D.G.,Maastricht University | Van Berkel J.J.B.N.,Research Institute NUTRIM | Jobsis Q.,Maastricht University | Lima Passos V.,CAPHRI | And 8 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2013

Although wheeze is common in preschool children, the underlying pathophysiology has not yet been disentangled. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath may serve as noninvasive markers of early wheeze. We aimed to assess the feasibility of VOC collection in preschool children, and to study whether a VOC profile can differentiate between children with and without recurrent wheeze. We included children (mean (range) age 3.3 (1.9-4.5) yrs) with (n=202) and without (n=50) recurrent wheeze. Exhaled VOCs were analysed by gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. VOC profiles were generated by ANOVA simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) and sparse logistic regression (SLR). Exhaled breath collection was possible in 98% of the children. In total, 913 different VOCs were detected. The signal-to-noise ratio improved after correction for age, sex and season using ASCA pre-processing. An SLR model with 28 VOCs correctly classified 83% of the children (84% sensitivity, 80% specificity). After six-fold cross-validation, 73% were correctly classified (79% sensitivity, 50% specificity). Assessment of VOCs in exhaled breath is feasible in young children. VOC profiles are able to distinguish children with and without recurrent wheeze with a reasonable accuracy. This proof of principle paves the way for additional research on VOCs in preschool wheezing. Copyright©ERS 2013.

Willeboordse M.,Maastricht University | van den Bersselaar D.L.C.M.,Maastricht University | van de Kant K.D.G.,Maastricht University | Muris J.W.M.,CAPHRI | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objective:Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for asthma in children. However, in the Netherlands, the obesity prevalence is rising while the asthma prevalence in children is stabilising. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between asthma and Body Mass Index (BMI) in children and whether this association is influenced by sex.Study Design:Parents of 39,316 children (6-16 years) in the south of the Netherlands were invited to complete an online questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, anthropometric variables and several potential confounding factors for asthma and obesity (including sex, birth weight and breastfeeding). Data was analysed by multivariable logistic regression models and an ordinal regression model.Results:The response rate was 24% (n boys= 4,743, n girls= 4,529). The prevalence of asthma, overweight and obesity was 8%, 15% and 2% respectively. Body mass index - standard deviation Score (BMI-SDS) was related to current asthma (adjusted OR: 1.29; 95%CI: 1.14-1.45, p≤0.001). When stratified for sex, asthma and BMI-SDS were only related in girls (Girls: adjusted OR: 1.31; 95%CI: 1.13-1.51, p≤0.001. Boys: adjusted OR: 1.01; 95%CI: 0.91-1.14, p=0.72).Conclusions:The positive association between BMI-SDS and asthma is only present in girls, not boys. Future studies into obesity and asthma should correct for sex in their analyses. © 2013 Willeboordse et al.

van de Kant K.D.G.,Maastricht University | van der Sande L.J.T.M.,Maastricht University | Jobsis Q.,Maastricht University | van Schayck O.C.P.,CAPHRI | Dompeling E.,Maastricht University
Respiratory Research | Year: 2012

There is an increasing interest in the potential of exhaled biomarkers, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), to improve accurate diagnoses and management decisions in pulmonary diseases. The objective of this manuscript is to systematically review the current knowledge on exhaled VOCs with respect to their potential clinical use in asthma, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis (CF), and respiratory tract infections. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane database, and reference lists of retrieved studies. Controlled, clinical, English-language studies exploring the diagnostic and monitoring value of VOCs in asthma, COPD, CF, lung cancer and respiratory tract infections were included. Data on study design, setting, participant characteristics, VOCs techniques, and outcome measures were extracted. Seventy-three studies were included, counting in total 3,952 patients and 2,973 healthy controls. The collection and analysis of exhaled VOCs is non-invasive and could be easily applied in the broad range of patients, including subjects with severe disease and children. Various research groups demonstrated that VOCs profiles could accurately distinguish patients with a pulmonary disease from healthy controls. Pulmonary diseases seem to be characterized by a disease specific breath-print, as distinct profiles were found in patients with dissimilar diseases. The heterogeneity of studies challenged the inter-laboratory comparability. In conclusion, profiles of VOCs are potentially able to accurately diagnose various pulmonary diseases. Despite these promising findings, multiple challenges such as further standardization and validation of the diverse techniques need to be mastered before VOCs can be applied into clinical practice. © 2012 van de Kant et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Willeboordse M.,Maastricht University | Van De Kant K.D.,Maastricht University | De Laat M.N.,Maastricht University | Van Schayck O.C.,CAPHRI | And 2 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: In children, the prevalence's of both obesity and asthma are disconcertingly high. Asthmatic children with obesity are characterised by less asthma control and a high need for asthma medication. As the obese asthmatic child is becoming more common in the clinical setting and the disease burden of the asthma-obesity phenotype is high, there is an increasing need for effective treatment in these children. In adults, weight reduction resulted in improved lung function, better asthma control and less need for asthma medication. In children this is hardly studied. The Mikado study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a long term multifactorial weight reduction intervention, on asthma characteristics in children with asthma and a high body weight. Methods/design. The Mikado study is a two-armed, randomised controlled trial. In total, 104 participants will be recruited via online questionnaires, pulmonary paediatricians, the youth department of the Municipal Health Services and cohorts of existing studies. All participants will be aged 6-16 years, will have current asthma, a Body Mass Index in the overweight or obesity range, and no serious comorbidities (such as diabetes, heart diseases). Participants in the intervention arm will receive a multifactorial intervention of 18 months consisting of sessions concerning sports, parental involvement, individual counselling and lifestyle advices including dietary advices and cognitive behavioural therapy. The control group will receive usual care. The primary outcome variables will include Forced Expiratory Volume in one second and Body Mass Index - Standard Deviation Score. Secondary outcomes will include other lung function parameters (including dynamic and static lung function parameters), asthma control, asthma-specific quality of life, use of asthma medication and markers of systemic inflammation and airway inflammation. Discussion. In this randomised controlled trial we will study the potential of a multifactorial weight reduction intervention to improve asthma-related outcome measures in asthmatic children with overweight. Moreover, it will provide information about the underlying mechanisms in the relationship between asthma and a high body weight in children. These findings can contribute to optimal management programs and better clinical guidelines for children with asthma and overweight. Trial registration. NCT00998413. © 2013 Willeboordse et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Klaassen E.M.M.,Maastricht University | Van De Kant K.D.G.,Maastricht University | Jobsis Q.,Maastricht University | Hovig S.T.P.,Maastricht University | And 4 more authors.
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2012

Background. A reliable asthma diagnosis is challenging in preschool wheezing children. As inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are more effective in asthmatics than in children with transient wheeze, an ICS response might be helpful in early asthma diagnosis. Methods. 175 children (aged two-four years) with recurrent wheeze received 200 g Beclomethasone extra-fine daily for eight weeks. Changes in Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC) biomarkers (pH, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IFN-γ, sICAM, and CCL-11), Fractional exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO), airway resistance, and symptoms were assessed. At six years of age a child was diagnosed as transient wheezer or asthmatic. Adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed with multiple testing correction. Results. 106 transient wheezers and 64 asthmatics were analysed at six years of age. Neither changes in EBC biomarkers, nor FeNO, airway resistance, or symptoms during ICS trial at preschool age were related to asthma diagnosis at six years of age. However, asthmatics had more airway symptoms before the start of the ICS trial than transient wheezers (P<0.01). Discussion. Although symptom score in preschool wheezing children at baseline was associated with asthma at six years of age, EBC biomarkers, airway resistance, or symptom response to ICS at preschool age could not predict asthma diagnosis at six years of age. Copyright © 2012 E. M. M. Klaassen et al.

PubMed | St Antonius Hospital, CAPHRI, Maastricht University and Orbis Medical Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

In asthma management guidelines the primary goal of treatment is asthma control. To date, asthma control, guided by symptoms and lung function, is not optimal in many children and adults. Direct monitoring of airway inflammation in exhaled breath may improve asthma control and reduce the number of exacerbations.1) To study the use of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), in the prediction of asthma exacerbations in a pediatric population. 2) To study the predictive power of these exhaled inflammatory markers combined with clinical parameters.96 asthmatic children were included in this one-year prospective observational study, with clinical visits every 2 months. Between visits, daily symptom scores and lung function were recorded using a home monitor. During clinical visits, asthma control and FeNO were assessed. Furthermore, lung function measurements were performed and EBC was collected. Statistical analysis was performed using a test dataset and validation dataset for 1) conditionally specified models, receiver operating characteristic-curves (ROC-curves); 2) k-nearest neighbors algorithm.Three conditionally specified predictive models were constructed. Model 1 included inflammatory markers in EBC alone, model 2 included FeNO plus clinical characteristics and the ACQ score, and model 3 included all the predictors used in model 1 and 2. The area under the ROC-curves was estimated as 47%, 54% and 59% for models 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The k-nearest neighbors predictive algorithm, using the information of all the variables in model 3, produced correct predictions for 52% of the exacerbations in the validation dataset.The predictive power of FeNO and inflammatory markers in EBC for prediction of an asthma exacerbation was low, even when combined with clinical characteristics and symptoms. Qualitative improvement of the chemical analysis of EBC may lead to a better non-invasive prediction of asthma exacerbations.

PubMed | CAPHRI, Maastricht University and MUMC
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

There is increasing evidence that obesity is related to asthma development and severity. However, it is largely unknown whether weight reduction can influence asthma management, especially in children.To determine the effects of a multifactorial weight reduction intervention on asthma management in overweight/obese children with (a high risk of developing) asthma.An 18-month weight-reduction randomized controlled trial was conducted in 87 children with overweight/obesity and asthma. Every six months, measurements of anthropometry, lung function, lifestyle parameters and inflammatory markers were assessed. Analyses were performed with linear mixed models for longitudinal analyses.After 18 months, the body mass index-standard deviation score decreased by -0.140.29 points (p<0.01) in the intervention group and -0.120.34 points (p<0.01) in the control group. This change over time did not differ between groups (p>0.05). Asthma features (including asthma control and asthma-related quality of life) and lung function indices (static and dynamic) improved significantly over time in both groups. The FVC% predicted improved over time by 10.1 8.7% in the intervention group (p<0.001), which was significantly greater than the 6.1 8.4% in the control group (p<0.05).Clinically relevant improvements in body weight, lung function and asthma features were found in both the intervention and control group, although some effects were more pronounced in the intervention group (FVC, asthma control, and quality of life). This implies that a weight reduction intervention could be clinically beneficial for children with NCT00998413.

PubMed | University Utrecht, St Antonius Hospital, CAPHRI, Viecuri Medical Center and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is characterized by chronically inflamed airways, and inflammation even increases during pulmonary exacerbations. These adverse events have an important influence on the well-being, quality of life, and lung function of patients with CF. Prediction of exacerbations by inflammatory markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) combined with early treatment may prevent these pulmonary exacerbations and may improve the prognosis.To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of a set of inflammatory markers in EBC to predict pulmonary exacerbations in children with CF.In this one-year prospective observational study, 49 children with CF were included. During study visits with an interval of 2 months, a symptom questionnaire was completed, EBC was collected, and lung function measurements were performed. The acidity of EBC was measured directly after collection. Inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-), and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were measured using high sensitivity bead based flow immunoassays. Pulmonary exacerbations were recorded during the study and were defined in two ways. The predictive power of inflammatory markers and the other covariates was assessed using conditionally specified models and a receiver operating characteristic curve (SAS version 9.2). In addition, k-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm was applied (SAS version 9.2).Sixty-five percent of the children had one or more exacerbations during the study. The conditionally specified models showed an overall correct prediction rate of 55%. The area under the curve (AUC) was equal to 0.62. The results obtained with the KNN algorithm were very similar.Although there is some evidence indicating that the predictors outperform random guessing, the general diagnostic accuracy of EBC acidity and the EBC inflammatory markers IL-6, IL-8, TNF- and MIF is low. At present it is not possible to predict pulmonary exacerbations in children with CF with the chosen biomarkers and the method of EBC analysis. The biochemical measurements of EBC markers should be improved and other techniques should be considered.

Van Der Velde R.Y.,VieCuri Medical Center for North Limburg | Brouwers J.R.B.J.,Expertise Center for Pharmacotherapy in the Elderly | Geusens P.P.,CAPHRI | Geusens P.P.,Hasselt University | And 2 more authors.
Food and Nutrition Research | Year: 2014

Background: Calcium and vitamin D play an essential role in bone metabolism but deficiency and/or inadequate intake are common. Objectives: To describe a practical approach based on the literature regarding clinically important aspects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Methods: A systematic evaluation of relevant literature in Medline was conducted. We included physiological studies, publications on relevant guidelines, meta-analysis, randomized clinical trials, and cohort studies. Results: An adequate calcium intake and vitamin D supplementation is recommended in most guidelines xon fracture prevention. Daily supplementation with 800 IU is advocated in most guidelines, appears to be safe, and with this approach it is generally not necessary to determine vitamin D levels. There are no data on additional effects of loading doses of vitamin D on fracture or fall prevention. Calcium supplementation should be tailored to the patient's need: usually 500 mg per day is required. The intestinal absorption of calcium citrate is approximately 24% better than that of calcium carbonate independent of intake with meals. Data on difference between calcium absorption with calcium carbonate compared to calcium citrate with simultaneous use of proton pump inhibitors are lacking. Concern has arisen about a possible link between calcium supplementation and an increased risk of myocardial infarction. Probably only well-designed prospective randomized controlled trials will be able to allow definite conclusions on this subject. Conclusion: Daily supplementation with 800 IU vitamin D is a practical and safe strategy without the need for prior determination of vitamin D levels. Calcium supplementation should be tailored to the patient's need based on total daily dietary calcium intake. In most patients 500 mg per day is required to achieve a total intake of 1,200 mg, or in some 1,000 mg per day. More calcium is absorbed from calcium citrate compared to calcium carbonate. Food & Nutrition Research 2014. © 2014 Robert Y. van der Velde et al.

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