Cantox Health science International

Mississauga, Canada

Cantox Health science International

Mississauga, Canada
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Simon R.R.,Cantox Health science International | Marks V.,University of Surrey | Leeds A.R.,University of Surrey | Leeds A.R.,Copenhagen University | Anderson J.W.,University of Kentucky
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews | Year: 2011

Glucosamine (GlcN) is a widely utilized dietary supplement that is used to promote joint health. Reports that oral GlcN supplementation at usual doses adversely affects glucose metabolism in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance have raised concerns that GlcN should be contraindicated in individuals with diabetes and those at risk for developing it. This review addresses its potential, when used at typical doses, to affect glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals and those with diabetes or 'pre-diabetes'. Publicly available scientific information and data on GlcN were systematically compiled using the electronic search tool, Dialog ®, and reviewed with special emphasis on human studies. In long-term clinical trials, including those containing subjects with type 2 diabetes or 'pre-diabetes', GlcN produced a non-significant lowering of fasting blood glucose concentrations in all groups of subjects treated for periods of up to 3 years. Owing to limitations in study design, conclusions based on studies that report adverse affects of GlcN on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in pre-diabetic subjects are suspect. However, no definitive long-term studies of GlcN use for individuals with pre-diabetes are available. Nevertheless, based on available evidence, we conclude that GlcN has no effect on fasting blood glucose levels, glucose metabolism, or insulin sensitivity at any oral dose level in healthy subjects, individuals with diabetes, or those with impaired glucose tolerance. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Uchida M.,Meiji Dairies Corporation | Tsuboi H.,Meiji Dairies Corporation | Takahashi Arita M.,Meiji Dairies Corporation | Nemoto A.,Meiji Dairies Corporation | And 4 more authors.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Propionibacterium freudenreichii ET-3 (7025) culture, a cell-free product of whey fermentation by P. freudenreichii ET-3, has been shown to promote the growth of Bifidobacteria through the action of 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (DHNA). Here we report the results of two clinical studies designed to evaluate the safety of high doses of P. freudenreichii ET-3 culture medium. Study 1 had a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. Ten healthy male and four healthy female subjects received 45 tablets of either P. freudenreichii ET-3 culture medium (total daily intake of 3. g solid content and 283.5 μg of DHNA; active group) or placebo (unfermented product) during two 1-week supplementation periods separated by a 4-week washout period. In Study 2, 11 healthy men took four tablets of P. freudenreichii ET-3 culture medium per day (total daily intake of 0.267. g solid content and 22.5 μg of DHNA) for a period of 13. weeks. In both studies, hematological, clinical chemistry, and urinary parameters were measured before and after each supplementation period and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed by questionnaire. In Study 1, there were no statistically significant differences between placebo and active supplementation periods in any measured parameter and the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms were similar between groups. In Study 2, total protein, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration decreased significantly from baseline and mean corpuscular volume and urine pH increased from baseline. The changes in hematological parameters were deemed not to be due to P. freudenreichii ET-3 culture medium supplementation given that all parameters remained within normal ranges and were not consistent with any clinically meaningful effect. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Jonaitis T.S.,Cantox Health science International | Card J.W.,Ashuren Health science | Magnuson B.,Cantox Health science International
Toxicology Letters | Year: 2010

Drawing accurate conclusions from toxicology studies is of critical importance, including the relatively new field of nanotoxicology, as results of these toxicity studies will likely have significant impact on regulatory decisions with regard to their use in consumer products, as well as consumer understanding of these materials. Therefore, we feel it necessary to point out our concerns with the recent report by Wu and colleagues (Wu et al., 2009). © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Card J.W.,Ashuren Health science | Card J.W.,Cantox Health science International | Magnuson B.A.,Cantox Health science International
International Journal of Toxicology | Year: 2010

As reports on the safety of various nanomaterials have yielded conflicting results, assessment of the reliability of each study is required to objectively interpret overall safety of the nanomaterial. A 2-step method to assess the quality of nanotoxicity studies is described. The first step uses a publicly available tool to rank the reliability of the study based on adequacy of design and documentation of methods, materials, and results, providing a "study score." The second step determines the completeness of physicochemical characterization of the nanomaterial/nanomaterials assessed within the study, providing a "nanomaterial score." This approach is encouraged to promote the notion that for studies conducted with nanomaterials, the combination of a reliable study and sufficient nanomaterial characterization is of significantly greater value than either of these alone. It is anticipated that the use and evolution of this approach will assist with the design and interpretation of studies assessing nanomaterial toxicity. © The Author(s) 2010.

Card J.W.,Cantox Health science International | Card J.W.,Ashuren Health science | Jonaitis T.S.,Cantox Health science International | Tafazoli S.,Cantox Health science International | Magnuson B.A.,Cantox Health science International
Critical Reviews in Toxicology | Year: 2011

Nanotechnology is poised to impact the food and food-related industries through improvements in areas as diverse as production, packaging, shelf life, and bioavailability of food and beverage components. An evaluation was undertaken to characterize the published literature pertaining to the safety of oral exposure to food-related nanomaterials and to identify research needs in this area. Thirty publications were identified in which a toxicological endpoint was assessed following in vivo (oral) or in vitro exposure to food-related nanomaterials. These publications were evaluated for overall quality using a two-step method that determined the reliability of the study design and the extent of nanomaterial characterization within each study. Of the 21 in vivo studies evaluated, 20 used mice or rats, 15 were lacking in some critical component of study design (e.g., oral gavage dose volume was not reported), none was longer than 90 days in duration, and only seven reported more than five physicochemical parameters for the nanomaterial(s) being evaluated. Of the nine in vitro studies evaluated, seven focused on cytotoxicity, two evaluated genotoxicity, only five reported more than five physicochemical parameters for the nanomaterial(s) being evaluated, and none discussed the potential interference by the nanomaterial(s) of the experimental assays that were employed. The results of this evaluation indicate that there is currently insufficient reliable data to allow clear assessment of the safety of oral exposure to food-related nanomaterials. Significant investment must be made to generate studies of sufficient quality and duration and that report comprehensive nanomaterial characterization such that results can be judged reliable and interpretable. Failure to do so will result in the perpetuation of the publication of studies that are inadequate for use in risk characterization. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Phillips K.M.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Ruggio D.M.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Horst R.L.,AMES Inc. | Minor B.,Mushroom | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Vitamin D 2 (ergocalciferol) and sterols were analyzed in mushrooms sampled nationwide in the United States to update the USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Vitamin D 2 was assayed using HPLC with [ 3H]-vitamin D 3 internal standard and sterols by GC-FID mass spectrometric (MS) confirmation. Vitamin D 2 was low (0.1-0.3 μg/100 g) in Agaricus bisporus (white button, crimini, portabella) and enoki, moderate in shiitake and oyster (0.4-0.7 μg/100 g), and high in morel, chanterelle, maitake (5.2-28.1 μg/100 g) and UV-treated portabella (3.4-20.9 μg/100 g), with significant variability among composites for some types. Ergosterol (mg/100 g) was highest in maitake and shiitake (79.2, 84.9) and lowest in morel and enoki (26.3, 35.5); the range was <10 mg/100 g among white button composites but 12-50 mg/100 g among samples of other types. All mushrooms contained ergosta-5,7-dienol (22,23-dihydroergosterol) (3.53-18.0 mg/100 g) and (except morel) ergosta-7-enol. Only morel contained brassicasterol (28.6 mg/100 g) and campesterol (1.23-4.54 mg/100 g) and no ergosta-7,22-dienol. MS was critical in distinguishing campesterol from ergosta-7,22-dienol. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Phillips K.M.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Horst R.L.,AMES Inc. | Koszewski N.J.,Iowa State University | Simon R.R.,Cantox Health science International
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D2 as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D4 (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D4 was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [3H] itamin D3 as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D4 was present (>0.1 μg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2-7.0 and 22.5-35.4 μg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D4 in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D4 content was more than twice that of D2 (6.29 vs. 2.59 μg/100 g). Vitamin D4 exceeded 2 μg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D4, but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D4 precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49-16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D4 should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D4 coeluted with D3 in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D2 and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D2 in mushrooms and using D3 as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D3 and D4. © 2012 Phillips et al.

Musa-Veloso K.,Cantox Health science International | Binns M.A.,University of Toronto | Kocenas A.C.,Cantox Health science International | Poon T.,Cantox Health science International | And 5 more authors.
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2010

The objectives of this review were to determine whether the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosahexaenoic acid dose-dependently reduce fasting serum triglycerides (TG) and, if so, to create a mathematical model that may be used to predict potential percent reductions in fasting serum TG levels at the recommended intakes of 200-500 mg/day. The assessment included 15 randomized controlled trials that met pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Across these 15 studies, the dose-response was modeled using a first-order elimination curve. The response variable was defined as percent change from baseline in fasting serum TG, adjusted for the placebo effect. A weighting factor equal to the product of each study's sample size and quality score was used. Using the equation of the dose-response curve, predicted reductions in fasting serum TG levels at the recommended long-chain omega-3 fatty acid intakes of 200-500 mg/ day are 3.1 to 7.2%. © 2010 Cantox Health Sciences Inc.

Fujii H.,Amino Up Chemical Co. | Nishioka N.,Amino Up Chemical Co. | Simon R.R.,Cantox Health science International | Kaur R.,Cantox Health science International | And 2 more authors.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC), a mushroom extract rich in α-1,4 linked glucans, is associated with immunostimulatory effects. AHCC is used in Japan as a dietary supplement to boost immune function and it also is purported to improve the symptoms of cancer and liver disease patients. A series of toxicological studies were conducted on a freeze dried preparation of AHCC (AHCC-FD) to further develop the body of evidence supporting the safety of this ingredient. AHCC-FD was not mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium and did not exhibit clastogenicity in a mouse micronucleus assay. In a 90-day study, Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 1000, 3000, or 6000 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage. No changes attributable to AHCC-FD treatment were observed in overall condition, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology findings, hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, and absolute and relative organ weights. Changes in urinary pH values observed in high-dose animals and mid-dose females were considered physiological rather than adverse effects given the acidic nature of AHCC-FD. Urinary protein also was increased in the same dose groups. As this finding was associated with decreased urinary pH and no evidence of kidney dysfunction was observed, it was considered of no toxicological significance. Histopathological changes related to AHCC-FD administration were observed in the limiting ridge of the stomach and in the liver of the high-dose group. The NOAEL was considered to be 3000 mg/kg body weight/day. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Tafazoli S.,Cantox Health science International | Wong A.W.,Cantox Health science International | Kajiura H.,Ezaki Glico Co. | Kajiura H.,Glico Foods Co. | And 4 more authors.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2010

An enzymatically-synthesized glycogen (ESG), intended for use as a food ingredient, was investigated for potential toxicity. ESG is synthesized in vitro from short-chain amylose by the co-operative action of branching enzyme and amylomaltase. In an acute toxicity study, oral administration of ESG to Sprague-Dawley rats at a dose of 2000. mg/kg body weight did not result in any signs of toxicity. ESG did not exhibit mutagenic activity in an in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay. In a subchronic toxicity study, increased cecal weights noted in the mid- (10%) and high-dose (30%) animals are common findings in rodents fed excess amounts of carbohydrates that increase osmotic value of the cecal contents, and thus were considered a physiological rather than toxicological response. The hematological and histopathological effects observed in the high-dose groups were of no toxicological concern as they were secondary to the physiological responses resulting from the high carbohydrate levels in the test diets. The no-observed-adverse-effect level for ESG in rats was therefore established to be 30% in the diet (equivalent to approximately 18 and 21. g/kg body weight/day for male and female rats, respectively). These results support the safety of ESG as a food ingredient for human consumption. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

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