Gabriel S.S.,University of Zürich |
Belge H.,University of Zürich |
Gassama A.,University of Zürich |
Debaix H.,University of Zürich |
And 4 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2016
Dent disease is a rare X-linked tubulopathy caused by mutations in the endosomal chloride-proton exchanger (ClC-5) resulting in defective receptor-mediated endocytosis and severe proximal tubule dysfunction. Bone marrow transplantation has recently been shown to preserve kidney function in cystinosis, a lysosomal storage disease causing proximal tubule dysfunction. Here we test the effects of bone marrow transplantation in Clcn5 Y/- mice, a faithful model for Dent disease. Transplantation of wild-type bone marrow in Clcn5 Y/- mice significantly improved proximal tubule dysfunction, with decreased low-molecular-weight proteinuria, glycosuria, calciuria, and polyuria four months after transplantation, compared to Clcn5 Y/- mice transplanted with ClC-5 knockout bone marrow. Bone marrow-derived cells engrafted in the interstitium, surrounding proximal tubule cells, which showed a rescue of the apical expression of ClC-5 and megalin receptors. The improvement of proximal tubule dysfunction correlated with Clcn5 gene expression in kidneys of mice transplanted with wild-type bone marrow cells. Coculture of Clcn5 Y/- proximal tubule cells with bone marrow-derived cells confirmed rescue of ClC-5 and megalin, resulting in improved endocytosis. Nanotubular extensions between the engrafted bone marrow-derived cells and proximal tubule cells were observed in vivo and in vitro. No rescue was found when the formation of the tunneling nanotubes was prevented by actin depolymerization or when cells were physically separated by transwell inserts. Thus, bone marrow transplantation may rescue the epithelial phenotype due to an inherited endosomal defect. Direct contacts between bone marrow-derived cells and diseased tubular cells play a key role in the rescue mechanism. © 2016 International Society of Nephrology.
PubMed | University of Basel, Cantonal Hospital Baden and Cantonal Hospital Graubunden
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European radiology | Year: 2016
Organ-based tube current modulation aims to reduce exposure to radiosensitive organs like the breasts by considering their anatomical location and altering tube current during rotation. Former phantom studies demonstrated a dose reduction of 20-37 %. Our study aimed to estimate the potential of dose reduction with this technique in relation to the actual location of breast tissue in a large clinical cohort.A 1-year cohort of chest CTs of females (N=1,263) was retrospectively evaluated. To estimate the relative dose effect, breast location was analysed by measuring the angle range of glandular tissue within the different dose zones. Relative exposure compared with constant tube current was calculated. Descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon-test were applied.Only 63 % of angle range of glandular breast tissue was found inside the reduced dose zone. The estimated mean relative dose reduction was lower than observed in former phantom studies(16 % vs. 20-37 %) but still significant compared to constant tube current (p<0.0001).Although organ-based tube current modulation results in a significant reduction of breast exposure compared to non-modulated irradiation, the technique cannot unfold its full potential, because breast tissue is often located outside the reduced dose zone, resulting in significantly lower dose reduction than expected. OBTCM results in significant dose reduction compared to constant tube current scans. A substantial portion of glandular tissue lies outside the reduced dose zone. Potential dose reduction using organ-based tube current modulation may be overestimated.
Varga Z.,University of Zürich |
Diebold J.,Cantonal Hospital Luzern |
Dommann-Scherrer C.,Cantonal Hospital Winterthur |
Frick H.,Cantonal Hospital Graubunden |
And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Adjuvant chemotherapy decisions in breast cancer are increasingly based on the pathologist's assessment of tumor proliferation. The Swiss Working Group of Gyneco- and Breast Pathologists has surveyed inter- and intraobserver consistency of Ki-67-based proliferative fraction in breast carcinomas. Methods: Five pathologists evaluated MIB-1-labeling index (LI) in ten breast carcinomas (G1, G2, G3) by counting and eyeballing. In the same way, 15 pathologists all over Switzerland then assessed MIB-1-LI on three G2 carcinomas, in self-selected or pre-defined areas of the tumors, comparing centrally immunostained slides with slides immunostained in the different laboratoires. To study intra-observer variability, the same tumors were re-examined 4 months later. Results: The Kappa values for the first series of ten carcinomas of various degrees of differentiation showed good to very good agreement for MIB-1-LI (Kappa 0.56-0.72). However, we found very high inter-observer variabilities (Kappa 0.04-0.14) in the read-outs of the G2 carcinomas. It was not possible to explain the inconsistencies exclusively by any of the following factors: (i) pathologists' divergent definitions of what counts as a positive nucleus (ii) the mode of assessment (counting vs. eyeballing), (iii) immunostaining technique, and (iv) the selection of the tumor area in which to count. Despite intensive confrontation of all participating pathologists with the problem, inter-observer agreement did not improve when the same slides were re-examined 4 months later (Kappa 0.01-0.04) and intra-observer agreement was likewise poor (Kappa 0.00-0.35). Conclusion: Assessment of mid-range Ki-67-LI suffers from high inter- and intra-observer variability. Oncologists should be aware of this caveat when using Ki-67-LI as a basis for treatment decisions in moderately differentiated breast carcinomas. © 2012 Varga et al.
Cleeland C.S.,University of Houston |
Body J.-J.,Brugmann University Hospital |
Stopeck A.,Arizona Cancer Center |
Von Moos R.,Cantonal Hospital Graubunden |
And 15 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2013
Background: In this study, the authors evaluated the effect of denosumab versus zoledronic acid (ZA) on pain in patients with advanced breast cancer and bone metastases. METHODS: The prevention of pain, reduction in pain interference with daily life activities, and the proportion of patients requiring strong opioid analgesics were assessed in a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy phase 3 study comparing denosumab with ZA for preventing skeletal-related events in 2046 patients who had breast cancer and bone metastases. Patients completed the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form at baseline and monthly thereafter. RESULTS: Fewer patients who received denosumab reported a clinically meaningful worsening of pain severity (≥2-point increase) from baseline compared with patients who received ZA, and a trend was observed toward delayed time to pain worsening with denosumab versus ZA (denosumab, 8.5 months; ZA, 7.4 months; P =.08). In patients who had no/mild pain at baseline, a 4-month delay in progression to moderate/severe pain was observed with denosumab compared with ZA (9.7 months vs 5.8 months; P =.002). Denosumab delayed the time to increased pain interference by approximately 1 month compared with ZA (denosumab, 16.0 months; ZA, 14.9 months; P =.09). The time to pain improvement (P =.72) and the time to decreased pain interference (P =.92) were similar between the groups. Fewer denosumab-treated patients reported increased analgesic use from no/low use at baseline to strong opioid use. CONCLUSIONS: Denosumab demonstrated improved pain prevention and comparable pain palliation compared with ZA. In addition, fewer denosumab-treated patients shifted to strong opioid analgesic use. Cancer 2013. © 2012 American Cancer Society. Denosumab demonstrates improved pain prevention and comparable pain palliation compared with zoledronic acid. Fewer denosumab-treated patients shift to strong opioid analgesic use. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.
PubMed | Visceral and Transplantation Surgery and., Divisions of Nephrology., Praxis Riesbach, Limites Medical Research and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN | Year: 2015
Definition of individual risk profile is the first step to implement strategies to keep the delicate balance between under- and overimmunosuppression after kidney transplantation.We used data from the Efficacy Limiting Toxicity Elimination Symphony Study (1190 patients between 2002 and 2004) to model risk of rejection and infection in the first year after kidney transplantation. External validation was performed in a study population from the Fixed-Dose Concentration-Controlled Trial (630 patients between 2003 and 2006).Despite different temporal dynamics, rejections and severe infections had similar overall incidences in the first year after transplantation (23.4% and 25.5%, respectively), and infections were the principal cause of death (43.2% of all deaths). Recipient older age, deceased donor, higher number of HLA mismatches, and high risk for cytomegalovirus disease were associated with infection; deceased donor, higher number of HLA mismatches, and immunosuppressive therapy including cyclosporin A (compared with tacrolimus), with rejection. These factors were integrated into a two-dimensional risk stratification model, which defined four risk groups: low risk for infection and rejection (30.8%), isolated risk for rejection (36.1%), isolated risk for infection (7.0%), and high risk for infection and rejection (26.1%). In internal validation, this model significantly discriminated the subgroups in terms of composite end point (low risk for infection/rejection, 24.4%; isolated risk for rejection and isolated risk for infection, 31.3%; high risk for infection/rejection, 54.4%; P<0.001), rejection episodes (isolated risk for infection and low risk for infection/rejection, 13.0%; isolated risk for rejection and high risk for infection/rejection, 24.2%; P=0.001), and infection episodes (low risk for infection/rejection and isolated risk for rejection, 12.0%; isolated risk for infection and high risk for infection/rejection, 37.6%; P<0.001). External validation confirmed the applicability of the model to an independent cohort.We propose a two-dimensional risk stratification model able to disentangle the individual risk for rejection and infection in the first year after kidney transplantation. This concept can be applied to implement a personalized immunosuppressive and antimicrobial treatment approach.
Bevacizumab, Pemetrexed, and Cisplatin, or Bevacizumab and Erlotinib for Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Stratified by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation: Phase II Trial SAKK19/09
PubMed | Cantonal Hospital Luzern, Coordinating Center, University of Lausanne, University of Zürich and 9 more.
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase II | Journal: Clinical lung cancer | Year: 2015
The goal was to demonstrate that tailored therapy, according to tumor histology and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status, and the introduction of novel drug combinations in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer are promising for further investigation.We conducted a multicenter phase II trial with mandatory EGFR testing and 2 strata. Patients with EGFR wild type received 4 cycles of bevacizumab, pemetrexed, and cisplatin, followed by maintenance with bevacizumab and pemetrexed until progression. Patients with EGFR mutations received bevacizumab and erlotinib until progression. Patients had computed tomography scans every 6 weeks and repeat biopsy at progression. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) 35% at 6 months in stratum EGFR wild type; 77 patients were required to reach a power of 90% with an alpha of 5%. Secondary end points were median PFS, overall survival, best overall response rate (ORR), and tolerability. Further biomarkers and biopsy at progression were also evaluated.A total of 77 evaluable patients with EGFR wild type received an average of 9 cycles (range, 1-25). PFS at 6 months was 45.5%, median PFS was 6.9 months, overall survival was 12.1 months, and ORR was 62%. Kirsten rat sarcoma oncogene mutations and circulating vascular endothelial growth factor negatively correlated with survival, but thymidylate synthase expression did not. A total of 20 patients with EGFR mutations received an average of 16 cycles. PFS at 6 months was 70%, median PFS was 14 months, and ORR was 70%. Biopsy at progression was safe and successful in 71% of the cases.Both combination therapies were promising for further studies. Biopsy at progression was feasible and will be part of future SAKK studies to investigate molecular mechanisms of resistance.
Bevacizumab Plus Pemetrexed Versus Pemetrexed Alone as Maintenance Therapy for Patients With Advanced Nonsquamous Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer: Update From the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK) 19/09 Trial
PubMed | Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research Coordinating Center, Hospital Simmental Thun Saanenland AG, University of Lausanne, University of Zürich and 9 more.
Type: | Journal: Clinical lung cancer | Year: 2016
Pemetrexed and bevacizumab as single agents have been approved for maintenance therapy after platinum-based induction in patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. It is currently unknown whether bevacizumab plus pemetrexed is superior to pemetrexed alone.We conducted a nonrandomized phase II trial with 2 sequential cohorts. In the first cohort, 77 patients were treated with 4 cycles of cisplatin, bevacizumab, and pemetrexed every 3 weeks, followed by bevacizumab plus pemetrexed maintenance until progression. In the second cohort, we treated 52 patients without bevacizumab, using maintenance with pemetrexed alone. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR), adverse events, and the treatment costs of the 2 cohorts were compared.The median PFS from the time of registration was 6.9 months in cohort 1 and 5.6 months in cohort 2. The ORR was 62.3% in cohort 1% and 44.2% in cohort 2. The PFS (hazard ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-1.0; P= .041) and ORR (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0-4.3; P=.049) were better in cohort 1 than in cohort 2. No OS difference was found (hazard ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7-1.6; P=.890) after a median follow-up period of 47 months for cohort 1 and 27 months for cohort 2. The rate of grade 3 adverse events was greater in cohort 1. The treatment costs per patient were on average 1.4 times greater for cohort1.The addition of bevacizumab increased the ORR and PFS, but not OS, in our nonrandomized trial. Furthermore, the addition of bevacizumab was associated with greater toxicity and higher costs.
Efficacy and safety of gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, and paclitaxel in cisplatin-refractory germ cell cancer in routine care--Registry data from an outcomes research project of the German Testicular Cancer Study Group
PubMed | Rotkreuzklinikum Munich, University of Hamburg, Hannover Medical School, Vivantes Klinikum Neukoelln and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Urologic oncology | Year: 2016
Chemotherapy (CTX) with gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, and paclitaxel (GOP) has demonstrated efficacy with an overall response rate (ORR) of approximately 50% in patients with multiply relapsed or cisplatin-refractory germ cell cancer (GCC) or both within a phase II study. We analyzed the efficacy and safety of GOP in routine clinical practice within a registry of the German Testicular Cancer Study Group.Overall, 63 patients with refractory GCC, who received GOP because of progression under cisplatin-based treatment or relapse after high-dose CTX, were included in this database. Patient characteristics, response rate, toxicity, progression-free and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. For further risk stratification, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.GOP was applied as second to eighth treatment line (median fourth) after cisplatin-based CTX. The ORR was 44% with complete remissions achieved in 8 patients (4 patients with CTX plus additional residual tumor resections and 4 patients with CTX alone) and partial remissions achieved in 19 of all for best response evaluable patients. The median progression-free survival and OS were 4.0 months (95% CI: 3.08-4.94) and 13.3 months (95% CI: 9.50-17.06), respectively. Long-term OS of>2 years was achieved in 13 (21%), and grade III and IV toxicities, mainly thrombocytopenia and leukopenia, occurred in 29 patients.Our results were similar compared with the previous results from the phase II study with a distinct activity with an ORR of 44%, and a long-term OS in 21% of the patients. Our data support the recommendation to use GOP secondary surgery in patients with multiply refractory metastatic GCC.
PubMed | University of Zürich and Cantonal Hospital Graubunden
Type: | Journal: Cancer cytopathology | Year: 2016
Molecular testing of lung adenocarcinomas (ADCs) is crucial for therapy stratification of patients. Because of the often limited diagnostic material, the authors aimed to explore the suitability of cytology smears for next-generation sequencing (NGS) and compared the results with concurrent histological specimens or cell blocks.A total of 16 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) ADCs with known genetic alterations were used as the first cohort for targeted DNA and RNA sequencing. In the second cohort of 8 cases, 8 cytological smears were compared with matching histological specimens or cell blocks for the study. For NGS library amplification, commercially available panels for DNA and RNA sequencing were applied. The Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine and the Ion Reporter workflow (version 5.0) were used for sequencing.All DNA libraries derived from FFPE and non-formalin-fixed cytological smear samples produced acceptable quality metrics, thereby enabling successful targeted DNA sequencing (100% performance). Targeted RNA sequencing failed in 1 FFPE case and 1 cytology probe by not reaching enough mapped fusion reads (92% performance rate). All previously detected mutations and gene rearrangements could be confirmed (sensitivity of 100%), whereas specificity of the DNA-based NGS assay reached 96%.The results of the current study demonstrated the suitability of non-formalin cytology specimens for the simultaneous NGS testing of lung ADCs using amplicon resequencing panels. These assays allowed for the input of cytological smears equal to concurrent histology or cell blocks and proved to be accurate in the detection of therapeutically actionable somatic mutations and gene rearrangements. Cancer Cytopathol 2016. 2016 American Cancer Society.