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Baty F.,Cantonal Hospital | Rothschild S.,University of Basel | Fruh M.,Cantonal Hospital | Betticher D.,Cantonal Hospital | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are recognized biomarkers for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). EGFR TKIs can also have activity against NSCLC without EGFR mutations, requiring the identification of additional relevant biomarkers. Previous studies on tumor EGFR protein levels and EGFR gene copy number revealed inconsistent results. The aim of the study was to identify novel biomarkers of the response to TKIs in NSCLC by investigating whole genome expression at the exon-level. We used exon arrays and clinical samples from a previous trial (SAKK19/05) to investigate the expression variations at the exon-level of 3 genes potentially playing a key role in modulating treatment response: EGFR, V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA). We identified the expression of EGFR exon 18 as a new predictive marker for patients with untreated metastatic NSCLC treated with bevacizumab and erlotinib in the first line setting. The overexpression of EGFR exon 18 in tumor was significantly associated with tumor shrinkage, independently of EGFR mutation status. A similar significant association could be found in blood samples. In conclusion, exonic EGFR expression particularly in exon 18 was found to be a relevant predictive biomarker for response to bevacizumab and erlotinib. Based on these results, we propose a new model of EGFR testing in tumor and blood. © 2013 Baty et al. Source

Cippa P.E.,University of Zurich | Schiesser M.,University of Zurich | Ekberg H.,Skane University Hospital | van Gelder T.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2015

Background and objectives Definition of individual risk profile is the first step to implement strategies to keep the delicate balance between under- and overimmunosuppression after kidney transplantation. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We used data from the Efficacy Limiting Toxicity Elimination Symphony Study (1190 patients between 2002 and 2004) to model risk of rejection and infection in the first year after kidney transplantation. External validation was performed in a study population from the Fixed-Dose Concentration-Controlled Trial (630 patients between 2003 and 2006). ResultsDespite different temporal dynamics, rejections and severe infections had similar overall incidences in the first year after transplantation (23.4% and 25.5%, respectively), and infections were the principal cause of death (43.2% of all deaths). Recipient older age, deceased donor, higher number of HLA mismatches, and high risk for cytomegalovirus disease were associated with infection; deceased donor, higher number of HLA mismatches, and immunosuppressive therapy including cyclosporin A (compared with tacrolimus), with rejection. These factorswere integrated into a two–dimensional risk stratification model,which defined four risk groups: low risk for infection and rejection (30.8%), isolated risk for rejection (36.1%), isolated risk for infection (7.0%), and high risk for infection and rejection (26.1%). In internal validation, this model significantly discriminated the subgroups in terms of composite end point (low risk for infection/rejection, 24.4%; isolated risk for rejection and isolated risk for infection, 31.3%; high risk for infection/rejection, 54.4%; P<0.001), rejection episodes (isolated risk for infection and low risk for infection/rejection, 13.0%; isolated risk for rejection and high risk for infection/rejection, 24.2%; P=0.001), and infection episodes (low risk for infection/rejection and isolated risk for rejection, 12.0%; isolated risk for infection and high risk for infection/rejection, 37.6%; P<0.001). External validation confirmed the applicability of the model to an independent cohort. Conclusions We propose a two–dimensional risk stratification model able to disentangle the individual risk for rejection and infection in the first year after kidney transplantation. This concept can be applied to implement a personalized immunosuppressive and antimicrobial treatment approach. © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology. Source

Patrick D.L.,University of Washington | Cleeland C.S.,University of Houston | Von Moos R.,Cantonal Hospital Graubunden | Fallowfield L.,University of Sussex | And 3 more authors.
Supportive Care in Cancer | Year: 2014

Bone metastases in advanced cancer frequently cause painful complications that impair patient physical activity and negatively affect quality of life. Pain is often underreported and poorly managed in these patients. The most commonly used pain assessment instruments are visual analogue scales, a single-item measure, and the Brief Pain Inventory Questionnaire-Short Form. The World Health Organization analgesic ladder and the Analgesic Quantification Algorithm are used to evaluate analgesic use. Bone-targeting agents, such as denosumab or bisphosphonates, prevent skeletal complications (i.e., radiation to bone, pathologic fractures, surgery to bone, and spinal cord compression) and can also improve pain outcomes in patients with metastatic bone disease. We have reviewed pain outcomes and analgesic use and reported pain data from an integrated analysis of randomized controlled studies of denosumab versus the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZA) in patients with bone metastases from advanced solid tumors. Intravenous bisphosphonates improved pain outcomes in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors. Compared with ZA, denosumab further prevented pain worsening and delayed the need for treatment with strong opioids. In patients with no or mild pain at baseline, denosumab reduced the risk of increasing pain severity and delayed pain worsening along with the time to increased pain interference compared with ZA, suggesting that use of denosumab (with appropriate calcium and vitamin D supplementation) before patients develop bone pain may improve outcomes. These data also support the use of validated pain assessments to optimize treatment and reduce the burden of pain associated with metastatic bone disease. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

Wicki A.,University of Basel | Hermann F.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Pretre V.,University of Basel | Winterhalder R.,Cantonal Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Oncology Research and Treatment | Year: 2014

Background: Antiangiogenic therapy is routinely used in a variety of cancer entities. Hypertension is the most common side effect of all currently available antiangiogenic treatments. Patients and Methods: In this prospective observational clinical trial, we investigated risk factors for blood pressure elevation in patients exposed to an antiangiogenic agent and explored the correlation between hypertension and the duration of antiangiogenic treatment. Results: In 169 patients, pre-existing antihypertensive medication was the most prominent risk factor associated with increased blood pressure during therapy. Between visits 1 and 3, the median systolic blood pressure increased by 10.85 mmHg in patients with pre-existing hypertension receiving antihypertensive medication while it increased by only 2.69 mmHg in patients without hypertension. The median increase in diastolic pressure was 7.28 versus 0.11 mmHg in patients with versus without pre-existing hypertension. Increases in blood pressure occurred early (within 6 weeks of starting therapy). In spite of this significant increase in the blood pressure, no major bleeding events or other related complications were observed during antiangiogenic therapy. Conclusions: Pre-existing hypertension and treatment with antihypertensive medication correlated with a more pronounced increase in blood pressure. Thus, intensified antihypertensive therapy might be warranted early during bevacizumab therapy in patients already receiving antihypertensive treatment. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. Source

Seidel C.,University of Hamburg | Oechsle K.,University of Hamburg | Lorch A.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | Dieing A.,Vivantes MVZ | And 7 more authors.
Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations | Year: 2016

Background: Chemotherapy (CTX) with gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, and paclitaxel (GOP) has demonstrated efficacy with an overall response rate (ORR) of approximately 50% in patients with multiply relapsed or cisplatin-refractory germ cell cancer (GCC) or both within a phase II study. We analyzed the efficacy and safety of GOP in routine clinical practice within a registry of the German Testicular Cancer Study Group. Methods: Overall, 63 patients with refractory GCC, who received GOP because of progression under cisplatin-based treatment or relapse after high-dose CTX, were included in this database. Patient characteristics, response rate, toxicity, progression-free and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. For further risk stratification, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: GOP was applied as second to eighth treatment line (median fourth) after cisplatin-based CTX. The ORR was 44% with complete remissions achieved in 8 patients (4 patients with CTX plus additional residual tumor resections and 4 patients with CTX alone) and partial remissions achieved in 19 of all for best response evaluable patients. The median progression-free survival and OS were 4.0 months (95% CI: 3.08-4.94) and 13.3 months (95% CI: 9.50-17.06), respectively. Long-term OS of>2 years was achieved in 13 (21%), and grade III and IV toxicities, mainly thrombocytopenia and leukopenia, occurred in 29 patients. Conclusion: Our results were similar compared with the previous results from the phase II study with a distinct activity with an ORR of 44%, and a long-term OS in 21% of the patients. Our data support the recommendation to use GOP ± secondary surgery in patients with multiply refractory metastatic GCC. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

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