In biology, the canopy is the aboveground portion of a plant community or crop, formed by plant crowns.For forests, canopy also refers to the upper layer or habitat zone, formed by mature tree crowns and including other biological organisms .Sometimes the term canopy is used to refer to the extent of the outer layer of leaves of an individual tree or group of trees. Shade trees normally have a dense canopy that blocks light from lower growing plants. Wikipedia.
Costa C.B.,Federal University of Ouro Preto |
Ribeiro S.P.,Canopy |
Castro P.T.A.,Federal University of Ouro Preto
Restoration Ecology | Year: 2010
We investigated the response of ant species to landscape and geomorphologic parameters of a long-term (7-11 years) restoration project in the Jequitinhonha River (Northern State of Minas Gerais, Brazil) margins, previously dredged by a diamond mining company. Geomorphological changes from the dredging were severe and the area is unlikely to be adequately restored, mainly due to the negative effects of flooding. Our hypothesis is that ant species assemblages bioindicate successional stages and soil characteristics. We studied the association of effects from the river's flooding zone, the native vegetation, and sedimentary grain size with that of ant species diversity, abundance, and composition. An ant sampling program was conducted in April 2005, using three methods: baits, pitfall traps, and direct collection. Grain size was measured by sieving. In total, 10,784 ants were sampled, belonging to 7 subfamilies, 24 genera and 45 morphospecies. Ant species richness was greater in the undisturbed savanna area than in the restored habitats, and equivalently greater in the ecotone and intermediate zone habitats than on the river bank, the poorest habitat. Atta sexdens rubropilosa indicated a condition related to small forest remnants having well-structured soil. On the other hand, ants with a body length of under 0.5 cm (Dorymyrmex pyramicus and Pheidole fallax) predominated in sandy areas, where the majority of the granules were the finest. The lack of organic matter and soil structure for constructing suitable nests may prevent large ants from colonizing such areas, and thus inhibit the advance of natural succession. © 2010 Society for Ecological Restoration International.
Shrestha M.,Monash University |
Dyer A.G.,RMIT University |
Dyer A.G.,Monash University |
Bhattarai P.,Tribhuvan University |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2014
Both the phylogenetic structure and trait composition of flowering plant communities may be expected to change with altitude. In particular, floral colours are thought to vary with altitude because Hymenoptera typically decline in importance as pollinators while Diptera and Lepidoptera become more important at higher elevations. Thus, ecological filtering among elevation zones and competitive processes among co-occurring species within zones could influence the floral chromatic cues present at low and high elevations. We collected data from 107 species of native flowering plants in the Himalaya Mountains of central Nepal over an elevation range of 900-4100 m, which includes habitat ranging from subtropical to subalpine within a relatively small geographical area. Using a phylogenetic framework, we asked whether and how flower colour diversity differed between species assemblages at lower and higher elevation, between monocots and eudicots, and between our sample from central Nepal and angiosperms from other regions of the world. There was significant phylogenetic clustering in the communities as a result of monocots, particularly orchids, which were found overwhelmingly at lower elevations. Phylogenetic signal for floral colours indicated that related species had colours that were more disparate than expected under Brownian motion evolution. Floral colours were significantly more diverse in the higher elevation subalpine zone than in the subtropical zone. However, the chromatic cues at both elevations were consistent with the hue discrimination abilities of the trichromatic hymenopteran visual system. Synthesis. Flower colour is not highly differentiated between subtropical and subalpine vegetation due to differences in the available orders of insect pollinators, or by the rate or direction of colour evolution in the lineages composing the two communities. Differences in colour diversity between zones may reflect differences in the ecologically available morphospace based on pollinator species richness and the constancy of their foraging behaviour. The chromatic signals present in Nepali species are similar to the signals found in insect-pollinated floras of other regions of the world. © 2013 British Ecological Society.
Canopy | Date: 2013-04-17
A silicone-based material that incorporates a photochromic molecule, and methods of making the same. The material changes color when exposed to ultraviolet radiation, thereby providing a convenient indicator of exposure. The material reverts to its original color after the source of ultraviolet radiation is removed. Compositions and articles that comprise a silicone-based material that incorporates a photochromic dye.
Canopy | Date: 2014-10-06
A system that incorporates teachings of the subject disclosure may include, for example, a water vehicle including a deck that accommodates a group of passengers above a waterline and an observation gondola accommodating the group of passengers below the waterline. The access between the observation gondola and the deck is provided by way of an aperture in a top of the observation gondola. The observation gondola includes a transparent floor and walls allowing the group of passengers to enjoy an underwater experience without exposure to the water and while maintaining an unobstructed panoramic view of the underwater environment. The underwater observation gondola can include a substantially open top, which may include a sun screen or weather protective cover. The open top exposes the observation gondola to fresh air, while alleviating any claustrophobic sensations as might otherwise be experienced by passengers during underwater observation. Other embodiments are disclosed.
Canopy | Date: 2013-04-23
A system and method that utilizes a protective sensor-interface apparatus, which removably connects and interfaces to a mobile electronic device, enabling users to more readily access and engage mobile content and data. The present invention provides a method and device wherein the user interfaces with digital content by using touch-sensitive areas on the back and sides of a protective case that interfaces with the mobile device, the software application and other users. This enables additional features that can be customized by users and developers for enhanced sensory experiences and digital rights management by creating components of a separate environment that exists in the case.