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Nishi-Tokyo-shi, Japan

Debray A.,Canon Incorporation
Bioinspiration and Biomimetics

Chameleons have developed a specialized ballistic tongue which elongates more than six times its rest length at speeds higher than 3.5 m s-1 and accelerations 350 m s-2, with a highly flexible mobile part, and which applies no continuous force during forward motion. These characteristics are possible because this tongue consists of two highly specialized systems, an ejection system for the forward motion and an accordion-like system for the retraction. Four manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon and based on this design have been developed, resulting in three characteristics similar to the tongue of the chameleon: extensibility of the manipulator, flexibility of the mobile part, and absence of continuous force during the forward motion. The first manipulator mimics the basic mechanism of the tongue of the chameleon and reproduced its basic performances. A second manipulator performs a catching function at a speed of 3.5 m s-1 with an acceleration of 573 m s -2 while elongating seven times its rest length. The design of this manipulator is such that the dc motor used for retraction applies a torque 25 times its rated torque. Moreover, during the retraction, the mobile part of the manipulator moves due to its own inertia, allowing the dc motor to rotate at full velocity. In another manipulator, the addition of an elastomer in the mobile part allows for control of the retraction velocity. A model for these two manipulators compares well with the experimental data. Finally, the addition of wings on the mobile part allows us to take the advantage of aerodynamic effects, which is unusual for manipulators. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Ueda M.,Canon Incorporation | Tsukamoto M.,Canon Incorporation | Sakai A.,Canon Incorporation | Okada S.,Canon Incorporation
Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

We investigated the penetration depth profiles of lithium ions in titanium oxide thin film during electrochromic reactions. The penetration depth profiles were obtained using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) for various states associated with coloring and bleaching reactions. It was found that the amount of penetrated lithium ions in the coloring process decreased sharply with increasing depth for samples in which lithium ions were inserted by applying a voltage, Vi, for 50 s in electrolyte. Over 70 % of the total lithium ions were detected within 10 nm from the surface of the film. The amount of ions in each depth was represented as a function of 1/d 2 (d, depth), and the penetration depth of the lithium ions increased by increasing Vi. Furthermore, we found that the de-intercalation of the lithium ions by applying a reverse voltage arise preferentially near the surface of the film. The de-intercalated (released) lithium ion ratio seems to decrease with increasing the penetration depth. Hence, we expected that an electrochromic device using nanorod-structured titanium oxide film would improve reproducibility owing to a small number of unreleased ions. A film composed of nanorods was made by oblique evaporation. The electrochromic device using the nanorod-structured film showed excellent reproducibility for small value of driving voltage. The number of possible switching increased by a factor of 30 according to the driving voltage. In this paper, we discuss the details of the relationship between the lithium ion penetration depth profile and the electrochromic reactions. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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