Lombardi G.,Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi |
Lanteri P.,Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi |
Graziani R.,CEDAL Laboratory |
Colombini A.,Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi |
And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Cycling is a not weight-bearing activity and is known to induce bone resorption. Stage races are really strenuous endurance performances affecting the energy homeostasis. The recently highlighted link, in the co-regulation of bone and energy metabolism, demonstrates a central role for the equilibrium between carboxylated and undercarboxylated forms of osteocalcin. Aim of this study was to understand the acute physiological responses to a cycling stage race in terms of bone turnover and energy metabolism and the possible co-regulative mechanisms underlying their relationship. We studied nine professional cyclists engaged in 2011 Giro d'Italia stage race. Pre-analytical and analytical phases tightly followed academic and anti-doping authority's recommendations. Bone and energy metabolism markers (bone alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin, leptin and adiponectin) and related hormones (cortisol and testosterone) were measured, by Sandwich Enzyme Immunoassays, at days -1 (pre-race), 12 and 22 during the race. The power output and the energy expenditure (mean and accumulated) were derived and correlated with the biochemical indexes. During the race, bone metabolism showed that an unbalance in behalf of resorption, which is enhanced, occurred along with a relative increase in the concentration of the undercarboxylated form of osteocalcin that was indirectly related to the enhanced energy expenditure, through adipokines modifications, with leptin decrease (high energy consumption) and adiponectin increase (optimization of energy expenditure). The exertion due to heavy effort induced a decrease of cortisol, while testosterone levels resulted unchanged. In conclusion, during a 3-weeks stage race, bone metabolism is pushed towards resorption. A possible relationship between the bone and the energy metabolisms is suggested by the relative correlations among absolute and relative concentrations trends of undercarboxylated OC, adipokines concentrations, BMI, fat mass (%), power output and the derived energy expenditure. © 2012 Lombardi et al.
Grasso D.,Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology |
Corsetti R.,Cannondale |
Lanteri P.,Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology |
Di Bernardo C.,Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology |
And 5 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports | Year: 2015
Muscle traction and bone metabolism are functionally linked and co-regulated by a series of factors. Although a role for steroid hormones was hypothesized, a clear definition of the bone-muscle interconnection still lacks. To investigate this relationship, we studied bone metabolism, muscle activity, and salivary steroid hormones profile in relation with the physical effort across a cycling stage race, a model of effort in absence of load. Nine pro-cyclists were recruited; body weight and power output/energy expenditure were recorded. Diet was kept constant. Saliva was collected at days -1, 4, 8, 12, 14, 19, and 23; blood and urine were collected at days -1, 12, and 23. Salivary steroid hormones [cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, and estradiol], serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK) activities, plasma sclerostin, and urinary calcium and phosphorous were measured. Cortisol remained constant, testosterone decreased at day 4, and estradiol and DHEA firstly increased and then returned to basal levels. Hormone concentrations were not correlated with plasma volume shifts. LDH, CK, AST, sclerostin, and urinary calcium and phosphorous increased. DHEA and estradiol correlated with the physical effort and the bone-muscular markers. A relationship between muscle activity, in absence of load, and bone resorption emerged under a putative regulation by DHEA and estradiol. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
News Article | September 5, 2014
You'll never see the SuperSix EVO Black Inc. on the street. You probably won't even see it in a local road race. This is Cannondale's chef d'œuvre, built with only the best components, top to bottom—it's a $11,920 piece of carbon ridden by the fastest humans on Earth. This SuperSix is fully decked out with Enve everything: Wheels, stem, bars, and seatpost, along with Chris King hubs and Shimano Dura Ace 9000 shifter and brakes. Incredibly, the frame itself weighs less than six sticks of butter—or about the weight of a bidon, if you prefer your weight in Tour de France-speak. But surprisingly enough, the bike's most interesting piece is the saddle. Made by Fabric, a company recently acquired by Cannondale, this saddle is constructed out of one full piece of carbon overlaid with buffalo leather. There's no other saddle like it in the world. This apex of technology will most likely never make a place in your home—but fits right in at the Tour de France. [Cannondale]
News Article | March 14, 2012
SACRAMENTO, California — A factory worker can turn a handful of tubes into a bicycle. An excellent bicycle, even. But only a craftsman can turn those same tubes into a work of art. This craftsmanship elevates a bicycle from a commodity to something … more. Something made just for you, by someone who gave you exactly what you want. Something born of a passion for riding and an abiding respect for framebuilding. This much was obvious at the North American Handmade Bicycle Show, where more than six dozen framebuilders gathered earlier this month to celebrate their craft and show off their latest creations. Here are 12 of our favorites from the show. Todd Ingermanson built his first bicycle 10 years ago, for one simple reason. “I couldn’t afford a hand-built bicycle,” he said. “So I thought I’d build my own." Here’s the thing, though: Building your own bike isn’t much cheaper than paying someone else to build it, once you pay for tools. And jigs. And painting. And … By the time Ingermanson was done, he’d invested so much time and money in the project that he figured he’d build another bike. Black Cat Bicycles was born. It hasn’t grown much in the decade since. It’s still just Ingermanson working in a 400-square-foot shop in Santa Cruz, California, doing everything from welding the frames to printing the T-shirts to sweeping the floors. He likes it that way. Ingermanson builds “35ish” frames a year. Each takes 35 to 40 hours. He works almost exclusively with steel, though you’ll see him use carbon from time to time. He’ll build just about anything, but says his 29er single speed (shown) is his most popular bike. The frame will set you back around $2,500, which seems like a bargain when you consider the quality of his workmanship. The only thing more beautiful than the lugs are the paint jobs covering them. Ingermanson paints everything himself. “I get to geek out with masking tape and paint,” he said with a laugh. “It’s like doing an art project every few weeks.”
News Article | May 18, 2012
More than 120 of the world’s best riders, including Americans David Zabriskie, Levi Leipheimer, and defending champion Chris Horner, are currently winding their way toward Los Angeles for the finish of the 2012 Amgen Tour of California, arguably the most prestigious pro race outside of Europe. Seven of the world’s 10 best teams, including top-ranked Omega Pharma-Quickstep and No. 2 Liquigas-Cannondale, are among the 16 outfits riding the 733.5 miles (.pdf) of this year’s edition. For the first two stages, we rode shotgun with the Garmin-Barracuda team of David Zabriskie, who seized the overall race lead after winning Stage 5 on Thursday. Zabriskie has worn the yellow jersey in the Tour de France and is a safe bet to make it to the start again this year. Every rider in the race is on a bike most of us would kill for, so we made our way through the mechanics’ stations looking for tech highlights and hints about what the pros will be riding at the Tour de France, which starts June 30. Above: The Pinarello Dogma 2 is one of the most coveted bikes in the world. Try as we might we couldn't get this guy from Bissell Pro Cycling to give us one. Photo: Ariel Zambelich/Wired