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Varennes, Canada

The perceived easy ignition and flammability of magnesium alloys create a detrimental safety feature that overshadows their high strength-to-weight ratio and hinders the aerospace application opportunities. To overcome the existing barriers a progress in understanding and controlling the reactivity of magnesium at high temperatures is required. This report describes fundamentals of magnesium ignition and flammability along with laboratory testing procedures and correlations with full scale fire scenarios, related in particular to the aircraft cabin. The influence of alloying elements on high temperature reactivity of magnesium and global efforts to develop ignition resistant and non-flammable magnesium alloys are reviewed. Although ignition and flammability represent quite different quantities, both are controlled by an oxidation resistance of the alloy and its capability to form a dense and protective surface oxide after exposures to an open flame or other heat source. Since surface oxide, composed of pure MgO, does not offer a sufficient protection, the research strategy is focused on modification of its chemistry and microstructure by micro-alloying the substrate with rare earths and other elements having high affinity to oxygen. © 2014. Source

Kudra T.,CANMET Energy
Drying Technology

Following background information on energy efficiency measures, this paper presents the methodology and calculation results for energy performance of several industrial dryers quantified in terms of the specific energy consumption and compared to the results obtained from the Baker and McKenzie's adiabatic dryer model for convective dryers. Examples of performance assessment are given for an indirectly heated spouted bed dryer with inert particles and a spray dryer with integrated fluidized bed. Because the energy performance determination is based on temperature and humidity of the ambient and exhaust air, the calculation method is also given for gas-fired direct dryers represented by a natural-gas heated pneumatic dryer for which combustion air and generated water vapor have to be accounted. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

An effective method is presented to elute Sb(V) from the amino-phosphonic resins that are used industrially to control the antimony concentration in copper electrolytes. Unlike Sb(III), which is amenable to elution with HCl and other reagents, Sb(V) is extremely difficult to elute from amino-phosphonic resins. Consequently, in industrial practice, a gradual build-up of Sb(V) often takes place on the resin beads, and this reduces the resin capacity and useful life. In this project, it was found that solutions containing 0.5-1.0 g/L of thiourea in 5-7 M HCl are effective eluting agents for Sb(V). It is postulated that thiourea reduces Sb(V) to Sb(III), a reaction that can only take place in concentrated HCl. The main parameters influencing the elution of Sb(V) with thiourea and HCl are presented and discussed. Source

This paper describes a number of global regulations dealing with very fine ambient particulate matter, PM2.5 and PM10 and the measurements aspects of PM2.5 emission measurement methods for stationary sources, particularly of dilution techniques that promote simulation of atmospheric transformation of stack gases allowing for the use of the resulting near-ambient emission data in source apportionment and health risk studies, along with the current progress on international standardization of source PM2.5 measurement methods. Crown Copyright © 2009. Source

Thevenard D.,Numerical Logics Inc. | Pelland S.,CANMET Energy
Solar Energy

The uncertainty in long-term photovoltaic (PV) system yield predictions was examined by statistical modeling of a hypothetical 10. MW AC, c-Si photovoltaic system in Toronto, Canada. The goal of this research was to develop a methodology for estimating the uncertainty in PV yield predictions and to identify avenues for reducing this uncertainty. In this case study, uncertainties were estimated to be about 3.9% for year-to-year climate variability, 5% for long-term average horizontal insolation, 3% for estimation of radiation in the plane of the array, 3% for power rating of modules, 2% for losses due to dirt and soiling, 1.5% for losses due to snow and 5% for other sources of error. Uncertainties due to ageing and system availability were also considered. By performing statistical simulations with the Solar Advisor Model software, it was found that the combined uncertainty (standard deviation) is approximately 8.7% for the first year of operation, and 7.9% for the average yield over the PV system lifetime. While these numbers could vary significantly from one system to the next, the methodology developed is widely applicable. Moreover, a simpler methodology was also explored which should yield quick and fairly reliable estimates of uncertainty. Finally, avenues for reducing yield uncertainties were identified, including: increasing the reliability and resolution of solar radiation estimates, including measurements of irradiance in non-horizontal planes at high quality ground stations, reducing the uncertainty in module ratings and investigating losses that have not been well documented such as those due to dirt, soiling and snow. © 2011 Crown © 2013 and Elsevier Ltd. Source

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