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Caylak E.,Cankiri Karatekin University
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics | Year: 2012

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity. The biochemical abnormalities and genetic factors play significant roles in the etiology of ADHD. These symptoms affect the behavior performance and social relationships of children in school and at home. Recently, many studies about biochemical abnormalities in ADHD have been published. Several research groups have also suggested the genetic contribution to ADHD, and attempted to identify susceptibility and candidate genes for this disorder through the genetic linkage and association studies. To date, these studies have reported substantial evidence implicating several genes (dopaminergic: DRD4, DAT1, DRD5, COMT; noradrenergic: DBH, ADRA2A; serotonergic: 5-HTT, HTR1B, HTR2A; cholinergic: CHRNA4, and central nervous system development pathway: SNAP25, BDNF) in the etiology of ADHD. Understanding the biochemistry and genetics of ADHD will allow us to provide a useful addition with other treatment procedures for ADHD. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Okay S.,Cankiri Karatekin University
Molecular genetics and genomics : MGG | Year: 2014

The WRKY superfamily of transcription factors was shown to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the major crops largely cultivated and consumed all over the world. Drought is an important abiotic stress resulting in a considerable amount of loss in agronomical yield. Therefore, identification of drought responsive WRKY members in wheat has a profound significance. Here, a total of 160 TaWRKY proteins were characterized according to sequence similarity, motif varieties, and their phylogenetic relationships. The conserved sequences of the TaWRKYs were aligned and classified into three main groups and five subgroups. A novel motif in wheat, WRKYGQR, was identified. To putatively determine the drought responsive TaWRKY members, publicly available RNA-Seq data were analyzed for the first time in this study. Through in silico searches, 35 transcripts were detected having an identity to ten known TaWRKY genes. Furthermore, relative expression levels of TaWRKY16/TaWRKY16-A, TaWRKY17, TaWRKY19-C, TaWRKY24, TaWRKY59, TaWRKY61, and TaWRKY82 were measured in root and leaf tissues of drought-tolerant Sivas 111/33 and susceptible Atay 85 cultivars. All of the quantified TaWRKY transcripts were found to be up-regulated in root tissue of Sivas 111/33. Differential expression of TaWRKY16, TaWRKY24, TaWRKY59, TaWRKY61 and TaWRKY82 genes was discovered for the first time upon drought stress in wheat. These comprehensive analyses bestow a better understanding about the WRKY TFs in bread wheat under water deficit, and increased number of drought responsive WRKYs would contribute to the molecular breeding of tolerant wheat cultivars.

Lifetime exposure to trace metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), trihalomethanes (THMs), and the other chemicals in drinking water through ingestion, and dermal contact may pose risks to human health. In this study, drinking water samples were collected from 50 sampling sites from Cankiri and its towns during 2010. The concentrations of all pollutants were analyzed, and then compared with permissible limits set by Turkish and WHO. For health risk assessment of trace metals, chronic daily intakes (CDIs) via ingestion and dermal contact, hazard quotient (HQ), and hazard index (HI) were calculated by using statistical formulas. For ingestion pathway, the maximum HQ values of As-non cancer in central Cankiri and Kursunlu town were higher than one. Considering dermal adsorption pathway, the mean and maximum HQ values were below one. HI values of As-non cancer in central Cankiri and Kursunlu town were also higher than one. Each trace metal (As-non cancer, B, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Sb) of the mean HI values were slightly below unity. Risks of As, PAHs, THMs, and benzene on human health were then evaluated using carcinogenic risk (CR). It is indicated that CRs of As and THMs were also found >10 -5 in drinking water of Cankiri might exert potential carcinogenic risk for people. These assessments would point out required drinking water treatment strategy to ensure safety of consumers. © 2012 Hindawi Publishing Corporation.

Karakose E.,Cankiri Karatekin University | Keskin M.,Erciyes University
Materials and Design | Year: 2011

In this study, Al based Al-3. wt.%Fe, Al-3. wt.%Cu and Al-3. wt.%Ni alloys were prepared by conventional casting. They were further processed using the melt-spinning technique and characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) together with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the Vickers microhardness tester. The rapidly solidified (RS) binary alloys were composed of supersaturated α-Al solid solution and finely dispersed intermetallic phases. Experimental results showed that the mechanical properties of RS alloys were enhanced, which can be attributed to significant changes in the microstructure. RS samples were measured using a microhardness test device. The dependence of microhardness HV on the solidification rate (V) was analysed. These results showed that with the increasing values of V, the values of HV increased. The enthalpies of fusion for the same alloys were determined by DSC. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Kusvuran S.,Cankiri Karatekin University
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drought stress on plant growth, relative water content (RWC), ion concentration and activities of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione reductase (GR), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in 8 okra genotypes. Seeds were germinated in a mixture of peat: perlite of 2:1 ratio. After 16 days of sowing, seedlings were transferred to plastic pots containing mixture of peat: perlite of 2:1 ratio. Drought stress was achieved by decreasing the irrigation water gradually over 4 days (100%, 75%, 50% & 25%). There were considerable differences among the okra genotypes in their physiological responses to drought. Significant differences in response to drought were found to be closely related to differences in the potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) contents and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Okra genotypes Okr-6, Okr-67, and Okr-105 showed higher antioxidant activity and higher K and Ca concentrations in the shoots and roots; therefore, were better able to perform better under drought stress. Whereas, genotypes Okr-47 and Okr-112 showed lower antioxidant activity and lower K and Ca concentrations and didn't perform well under drought. In conclusion, drought resistants genotypes exhibit a better protection mechanism against oxidative damage by maintaining a higher inherited and induced activity of antioxidant enzymes than the sensitive genotypes. © 2012 Friends Science Publishers.

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