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Seoul, South Korea

Yang J.,University of Queensland | Lee T.,Seoul National University | Kim J.,Seoul National University | Cho M.-C.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2013

Recent studies in population of European ancestry have shown that 30%~50% of heritability for human complex traits such as height and body mass index, and common diseases such as schizophrenia and rheumatoid arthritis, can be captured by common SNPs and that genetic variation attributed to chromosomes are in proportion to their length. Using genome-wide estimation and partitioning approaches, we analysed 49 human quantitative traits, many of which are relevant to human diseases, in 7,170 unrelated Korean individuals genotyped on 326,262 SNPs. For 43 of the 49 traits, we estimated a nominally significant (P<0.05) proportion of variance explained by all SNPs on the Affymetrix 5.0 genotyping array (hG 2). On average across 47 of the 49 traits for which the estimate of hG 2 is non-zero, common SNPs explain approximately one-third (range of 7.8% to 76.8%) of narrow sense heritability. The estimate of hG 2 is highly correlated with the proportion of SNPs with association P<0.031 (r2 = 0.92). Longer genomic segments tend to explain more phenotypic variation, with a correlation of 0.78 between the estimate of variance explained by individual chromosomes and their physical length, and 1% of the genome explains approximately 1% of the genetic variance. Despite the fact that there are a few SNPs with large effects for some traits, these results suggest that polygenicity is ubiquitous for most human complex traits and that a substantial proportion of the "missing heritability" is captured by common SNPs. © 2013 Yang et al. Source


Shin D.-H.,Seoul National University | Lee J.W.,Horse Industry Research Center | Park J.-E.,Seoul National University | Choi I.-Y.,Seoul National University | And 3 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2015

Thoroughbred, a relatively recent horse breed, is best known for its use in horse racing. Although myostatin (MSTN) variants have been reported to be highly associated with horse racing performance, the trait is more likely to be polygenic in nature. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants strongly associated with racing performance by using estimated breeding value (EBV) for race time as a phenotype. We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study to search for genetic variants associated with the EBV. In the first stage of genome-wide association study, a relatively large number of markers (∼54,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) were evaluated in a small number of samples (240 horses). In the second stage, a relatively small number of markers identified to have large effects (170 SNPs) were evaluated in a much larger number of samples (1,156 horses). We also validated the SNPs related to MSTN known to have large effects on racing performance and found significant associations in the stage two analysis, but not in stage one. We identified 28 significant SNPs related to 17 genes. Among these, six genes have a function related to myogenesis and five genes are involved in muscle maintenance. To our knowledge, these genes are newly reported for the genetic association with racing performance of Thoroughbreds. It complements a recent horse genome-wide association studies of racing performance that identified other SNPs and genes as the most significant variants. These results will help to expand our knowledge of the polygenic nature of racing performance in Thoroughbreds. Copyright © 2015 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. Source


Oh J.-D.,Hankyong National University | Song K.-D.,Hankyong National University | Seo J.-H.,Hankyong National University | Kim D.-K.,Hankyong National University | And 13 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2014

Pork from Jeju black pig (population J) and Berkshire (population B) has a unique market share in Korea because of their high meat quality. Due to the high demand of this pork, traceability of the pork to its origin is becoming an important part of the consumer demand. To examine the feasibility of such a system, we aim to provide basic genetic information of the two black pig populations and assess the possibility of genetically distinguishing between the two breeds. Muscle samples were collected from slaughter houses in Jeju Island and Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea, for populations J and B, respectively. In total 800 Jeju black pigs and 351 Berkshires were genotyped at thirteen microsatellite (MS) markers. Analyses on the genetic diversity of the two populations were carried out in the programs MS toolkit and FSTAT. The population structure of the two breeds was determined by a Bayesian clustering method implemented in structure and by a phylogenetic analysis in Phylip. Population J exhibited higher mean number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity value, and polymorphism information content, compared to population B. The FIS values of population J and population B were 0.03 and-0.005, respectively, indicating that little or no inbreeding has occurred. In addition, genetic structure analysis revealed the possibility of gene flow from population B to population J. The expected probability of identify value of the 13 MS markers was 9.87×10-14 in population J, 3.17×10-9 in population B, and 1.03×10 -12 in the two populations. The results of this study are useful in distinguishing between the two black pig breeds and can be used as a foundation for further development of DNA markers. © 2014 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. Source

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