PubMed | University of Turin, University of Genoa, Candiolo Cancer Institute IRCCS, IST Instituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Biomaterials | Year: 2015
Selective tumor targeting is expected to enhance drug delivery and to decrease toxicity, resulting in an improved therapeutic index. We have recently identified the HSYWLRS peptide sequence as a specific ligand for aggressive neuroblastoma, a childhood tumor mostly refractory to current therapies. Here we validated the specific binding of HSYWLRS to neuroblastoma cell suspensions obtained either from cell lines, animal models, or Schwannian-stroma poor, stage IV neuroblastoma patients. Binding of the biotinylated peptide and of HSYWLRS-functionalized fluorescent quantum dots or liposomal nanoparticles was dose-dependent and inhibited by an excess of free peptide. In animal models obtained by the orthotopic implant of either MYCN-amplified or MYCN single copy human neuroblastoma cell lines, treatment with HSYWLRS-targeted, doxorubicin-loaded Stealth Liposomes increased tumor vascular permeability and perfusion, enhancing tumor penetration of the drug. This formulation proved to exert a potent antitumor efficacy, as evaluated by bioluminescence imaging and micro-PET, leading to (i) delay of tumor growth paralleled by decreased tumor glucose consumption, and (ii) abrogation of metastatic spreading, accompanied by absence of systemic toxicity and significant increase in the animal life span. Our findings are functional to the design of targeted nanocarriers with potentiated therapeutic efficacy towards the clinical translation.
PubMed | University of Turin, Candiolo Cancer Institute IRCCS, University of New Mexico, Instituto G Gaslini and Irccs Azienda Ospedaliera San Martino Ist Instituto Nazionale Per La Ricerca Sul Cancro
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer research | Year: 2015
Neuronal pentraxins (NPTX) and their corresponding receptors (NPTXR) have been studied as synapse-associated proteins in the nervous system, but their role in cancer is largely unknown. By applying a multidisciplinary, high-throughput proteomic approach, we have recently identified a peptide ligand motif for targeted drug delivery to neuroblastoma. Here, we report the sequence similarity between this peptide and a conserved portion of the pentraxin domain that is involved in the homo- and hetero-oligomerization of NPTX2 and NPTXR. We show that, in comparison with normal tissues, NPTX2 and NPTXR are overexpressed in vivo in mouse models, as well as in human Schwannian stroma-poor, stage IV neuroblastoma. Both proteins are concentrated in the vicinity of tumor blood vessels, with NPTXR also present on neuroblastic tumor cells. In vivo targeting of NPTX2 and NPTXR with the selected peptide or with specific antibodies reduces tumor burden in orthotopic mouse models of human neuroblastoma. In vitro interference with this ligand/receptor system inhibits the organization of neuroblastoma cells in tumor-like masses in close contact with vascular cells, as well as their adhesion to normal microenvironment-derived cells, suggesting a role in the cross-talk between tumor and normal cells in the early steps of neuroblastoma development. Finally, we show that NPTX2 is a marker of poor prognosis for neuroblastoma patients.
Cavalloni G.,Candiolo Cancer Institute IRCCS |
Peraldo-Neia C.,University of Turin |
Varamo C.,University of Turin |
Chiorino G.,Cancer Genomics Laboratory |
And 5 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2016
Biliary tract carcinomas (BTC) are malignant tumors with limited therapeutic options. Clinical experiences with anti-EGFR therapies have produced unsatisfactory results. The strategies of combined inhibition of EGFR and MEK1/2 could be a promising therapeutic option in BTC treatment. Preclinical activity of Panitumumab and Trametinib was tested in in vitro (EGI-1, MT-CHC01 and WITT cells) and in in vivo (xenograft) BTC models with different K-RAS mutational status. Trametinib reduced MAPK phosphorylation in wild type (WT) WITT cells and in both K-RAS mutated cells; in EGI-1 was also able to switch off EGFR activation. Panitumumab reduced the activation of its target only in EGI-1 cells, and of MAPK only in WITT cells. While Trametinib inhibited cell growth in K-RAS mutated cell lines, Panitumumab had no effect on proliferation independently by K-RAS status. The addition of Panitumumab to Trametinib did not significantly potentiate its anti-proliferative effect also in mutated cells. In vivo, Trametinib was able to significantly slow the tumor growth in K-RAS mutated xenograft models, but did not have effect on K-RAS WT cells; the addition of Panitumumab potentiated the Trametinib efficacy in MT-CHC01 and overcame the resistance to the anti-EGFR in WITT cells, in which the monotherapy was ineffective. Only in K-RAS mutated xenografts Trametinib alone or in combination with Panitumumab significantly decreased Ki67 positive cell fraction and CD31 angiogenesis markers. In conclusion, this preclinical study provides a rational to plan clinical trials assessing the efficacy of Trametinib in K-RAS mutated BTC patients and the combination with anti-EGFR in WT BTC patients.
PubMed | University of Turin, Candiolo Cancer Institute IRCCS and Cancer Genomics Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine | Year: 2016
Biliary tract carcinoma is a rare malignancy with multiple causes, which underlie the different genetic and molecular profiles. Cancer cell lines are affordable models, reflecting the characteristics of the tumor of origin. They represent useful tools to identify molecular targets for treatment. Here, we established and characterized from biological, molecular, and genetic point of view, an Italian intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell line (ICC), the MT-CHC01. MT-CHC01 cells were isolated from a tumor-derived xenograft. Immunophenotypical characterization was evaluated both at early and after stabilization passages. In vitro biological, genetic, and molecular features were also investigated. In vivo tumorigenicity was assessed in NOD/SCID mice. MT-CHC01cells retain epithelial cell markers, EPCAM, CK7, and CK19, and some stemness and pluripotency markers, i.e., SOX2, Nanog, CD49f/integrin-6, CD24, PDX1, FOXA2, and CD133. They grow as a monolayer, with a population double time of about 40h; they show a low migration and invasion potential. In low attachment conditions, they are able to form spheres and to growth in anchorage-independent manner. After subcutaneous injection, they retain in vivo tumorigenicity; the expression of biliary markers as CA19-9 and CEA were maintained from primary tumor. The karyotype is highly complex, with a hypotriploid to hypertriploid modal number (3n+/-) (52 to 77 chromosomes); low level of HER2 gene amplification, TP53 deletion, gain of AURKA were identified; K-RAS G12D mutation were maintained from primary tumor to MT-CHC01 cells. We established the first ICC cell line derived from an Italian patient. It will help to study either the biology of this tumor or to test drugs both in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed | Medical Oncology, Candiolo Cancer Institute IRCCS, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, University of Turin and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research | Year: 2016
The MHC-unrestricted activity of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells against chemo-surviving melanoma cancer stem cells (mCSCs) was explored, as CSCs are considered responsible for chemo-resistance and relapses.Putative mCSCs were visualized by engineering patient-derived melanoma cells (MCs) with a lentiviral-vector encoding eGFP under expression control by stemness gene promoter oct4. Their stemness potential was confirmed in vivo by limiting dilution assays. We explored the sensitivity of eGFP+mCSCs to chemotherapy (CHT), BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) or CIK cells, as single agents or in sequence, in vitro. First, we treated MCs in vitro with fotemustine or dabrafenib (BRAF-mutated cases); then surviving MCs, enriched in mCSCs, were challenged with autologous CIK cells. CIK cell activity against chemoresistant mCSCs was confirmed vivo in two distinct immunodeficient murine models.We visualized eGFP+mCSCs (142.1%) in 11 MCs. The tumorigenic precursor rate in vivo was higher within eGFP-positive MCs (2) compared with the eGFP-negative counterpart (870). In vitro mCSCs were relatively resistant to CHT and BRAFi, but killed by CIK cells (n=11, 8/11 autologous), with specific lysis ranging from 95% (E/T 40:1) to 20% (E/T 1:3). In vivo infusion of autologous CIK cells into mice bearing xenografts from 3 distinct melanoma demonstrated significant tumor responses involving CHT-spared eGFP+mCSCs (p=0.001). Sequential CHT-immunotherapy treatment retained antitumor activity (n=12, p=0.001) reducing mCSC rates (p=0.01).These findings are the first demonstration that immunotherapy with CIK cells is active against autologous mCSCs surviving chemotherapy or BRAFi. An experimental platform for mCSC study and rationale for CIK cells in melanoma clinical study is provided.
PubMed | University of Turin and Candiolo Cancer Institute IRCCS
Type: | Journal: Cancer treatment reviews | Year: 2016
Omission of axillary dissection in women with breast cancer and one or two positive sentinel-node biopsy is a major advancement in the management of this disease. Supported by a sound rationale and confirmed by prospective, randomized trials, omission of axillary dissection is now recommended in women who have undergone breast conserving surgery and who are candidate to adjuvant radiotherapy. Because breast cancer is best managed in the context of a multidisciplinary team, this surgical shift in the paradigm is expected to have implications that extend also to the other specialties involved in the team. In fact, the full evaluation of the axillary tumor burden has been historically considered an essential part of tumor staging and the absolute number of involved node critical information to tailor post-surgical treatments. Lack of this information in a patient with axillary involvement documented by a positive sentinel lymph-node biopsy may represent a challenge when deciding on further, post-surgical treatments. This review will address the critical aspects and the potential implications of omission of axillary dissection in the context of the multidisciplinary breast team.
PubMed | Breast Unit, Medical Oncology, Candiolo Cancer Institute IRCCS, A.O.U. Citta della Salute e della Science and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: SpringerPlus | Year: 2016
This retrospective multicenter analysis was aimed to evaluate clinical activity and tolerability of eribulin in pretreated metastatic breast cancer patients in clinical practice. Patients treated with eribulin from January 2012 to July 2013 were enrolled in the observational study from 10 italian hospitals. Tumor and toxicity evaluation were performed according to Agenzia Italiana Farmaco. One-hundred and thirteen patients were included in the study. Median age 62years old. 71.7% of the patients had visceral involvement and the majority had a burden of disease involving two or more organs with a median number of 2 (1-6). The median number of previous chemotherapy regimens for advanced disease was 3 (1-10). Median number of eribulin cycles was 4 (1-27). Overall response rate was 24% (95% CI 16.0-31.8). Clinical benefit rate, was 35.4% (95% CI 26.6-44.2). At a median follow-up of 29.6months (8.3-41.9) the median progression free survival was 3.3months (0.6-26.7; 95% CI 2.4-4.2), and the median overall survival 11.6months (0.6-33.3; 95% CI 8.7-14.5). No correlation was recorded between subtypes in terms of ORR and CBR. Toxicity was manageable. Main common grade 3-4 toxicities were neutropenia (19.4%), febrile neutropenia (0.9%), asthenia (3.5%), abnormal liver function test (1.8%), stomatitis (0.9%). Our results confirm that treatment with eribulin is feasible and safe in real-world patients.
PubMed | University of Turin, Candiolo Cancer Institute IRCCS and Cancer Genomics Laboratory
Type: | Journal: BMC cancer | Year: 2016
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is an aggressive, highly lethal tumors and lacks of effective chemo and targeted therapies. Cell lines and animal models, even partially reflecting tumor characteristics, have limits to study ICC biology and drug response. In this work, we created and characterized a novel ICC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of Italian origin.Seventeen primary ICC tumors derived from Italian patients were implanted into NOD (Non-Obese Diabetic)/Shi-SCID (severe combined immunodeficient) mice. To verify if the original tumor characteristics were maintained in PDX, immunohistochemical (cytokeratin 7, 17, 19, and epithelial membrane antigen) molecular (gene and microRNA expression profiling) and genetic analyses (comparative genomic hybridization array, and mutational analysis of the kinase domain of EGFR coding sequence, from exons 18 to 21, exons 2 to 4 of K-RAS, exons 2 to 4 of N-RAS, exons 9 and 20 of PI3KCA, and exon 15 of B-RAF) were performed after tumor stabilization.One out of 17 (5.8%) tumors successfully engrafted in mice. A high molecular and genetic concordance between primary tumor (PR) and PDX was confirmed by the evaluation of biliary epithelial markers, tissue architecture, genetic aberrations (including K-RAS G12D mutation), and transcriptomic and microRNA profiles.For the first time, we established a new ICC PDX model which reflects the histology and genetic characteristics of the primary tumor; this model could represent a valuable tool to understand the tumor biology and the progression of ICC as well as to develop novel therapies for ICC patients.