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Toronto, Canada

Snigdha S.,University of California at Irvine | Milgram N.W.,CanCog Technologies Inc. | Willis S.L.,University of Washington | Albert M.,Johns Hopkins University | And 3 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging

A major goal of animal research is to identify interventions that can promote successful aging and delay or reverse age-related cognitive decline in humans. Recent advances in standardizing cognitive assessment tools for humans have the potential to bring preclinical work closer to human research in aging and Alzheimer's disease. The National Institute of Health (NIH) has led an initiative to develop a comprehensive Toolbox for Neurologic Behavioral Function (NIH Toolbox) to evaluate cognitive, motor, sensory and emotional function for use in epidemiologic and clinical studies spanning 3 to 85 years of age. This paper aims to analyze the strengths and limitations of animal behavioral tests that can be used to parallel those in the NIH Toolbox. We conclude that there are several paradigms available to define a preclinical battery that parallels the NIH Toolbox. We also suggest areas in which new tests may benefit the development of a comprehensive preclinical test battery for assessment of cognitive function in animal models of aging and Alzheimer's disease. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Creed M.C.,Kings College | Milgram N.W.,Kings College | Milgram N.W.,CanCog Technologies Inc.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia, affecting an estimated 4.8 million people in North America. For the past decade, the amyloid cascade hypothesis has dominated the field of AD research. This theory posits that the deposition of amyloid-beta protein (Aβ) in the brain is the key pathologic event in AD, which induces a series of neuropathological changes that manifest as cognitive decline and eventual dementia. Based on this theory, interventions that reduce Aβ burden in the brain would be expected to alleviate both the neuropathological changes and dementia, which characterize AD. Several diverse pharmacological strategies have been developed to accomplish this. These include inhibiting the formation of Aβ, preventing the aggregation of Aβ into insoluble aggregates, preventing the entry of Aβ into the brain from the periphery and enhancing the clearance of Aβ from the central nervous system. To date, no amyloid-modifying therapy has yet been successful in phase 3 clinical trials; however, several trials are currently underway. This article provides a review of the status of amyloid-modifying therapies and the implications for the amyloid cascade hypothesis. © 2010 American Aging Association, Media. Source

Mongillo P.,University of Padua | Araujo J.A.,InterVivo Solutions Inc. | Araujo J.A.,CanCog Technologies Inc. | Araujo J.A.,University of Toronto | And 6 more authors.

Aged dogs spontaneously develop progressive decline in both cognitive and behavioral function, in addition to neuropathological changes, that collectively parallel several aspects of human aging and Alzheimer's disease progression and likely contribute to the development of canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome. In the current study, ethologically relevant spatial learning, retention, and reversal learning tasks were conducted, with the goal of expanding canine neuropsychological testing to pet dogs. Initially, dogs (N=44, aged 7.8±2.8 years, mean±SD) had to learn which of two alternative routes successfully led out of a T-maze. Two weeks later, long-term memory retention was assessed, immediately followed by a reversal learning task in which the previously correct route out of the maze was reversed compared with the initial learning and memory retention tasks. No effects of age were evident on the learning or retention tasks. However, older (≥8 years) dogs were significantly impaired on the reversal learning task compared with younger ones (<8 years). Moreover, trial response latency was significantly increased in aged dogs across both the initial and reversal learning tasks but not on the retention task, which suggests that processing speed was impaired by increasing age during the acquisition of novel spatial information but not during performance of previously learned responses. Overall, the current study provides a framework for assessing cognitive function in pet dogs, which should improve understanding of the effects of aging on cognition in the dog population. © American Aging Association 2013. Source

Cancog Technologies Inc. | Date: 2009-01-06

Computer software programs used to collect, organize, analyze and manage data for the purpose of obtaining cognitive assessments of human and animal subjects. Model system development services, namely, the development of test procedures and test apparatus for use in planning and conducting studies and tests on drugs, nutritional therapies and behavioral therapies.

CanCog Technologies Inc. | Date: 2014-06-10

A system and method for cognitive enrichment of an animal. At least one display device is configured to display stimuli to an animal. At least one input device is configured to accept input from the animal. At least one reward dispenser is configured to dispense a reward to the animal. At least one processor is communicatively coupled with the at least one display device, the at least one input device, and the at least one reward dispenser. Execution of computer-readable instructions causes the at least one processor to carry out steps including displaying one or more stimuli to the animal using the at least one display device, accepting an input from the animal corresponding to at least one of the one or more stimuli, making a dispensing decision based on the input, and dispensing a reward using the at least one reward dispenser based on the dispensing decision.

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